A surface acoustic wave element, a surface acoustic wave device, a duplexer, and a method of making a surface acoustic wave element which significantly restrain characteristics from deteriorating are provided. The surface acoustic wave element in accordance with the present invention comprises a piezoelectric substrate, and an IDT electrode formed on the piezoelectric substrate, whereas the piezoelectric substrate has a volume resistivity of not less than 3.6.times.10.sup.10 .OMEGA..multidot.cm and not more than 1.5.times.10.sup.14 .OMEGA..multidot.cm. This surface acoustic wave element comprises the piezoelectric substrate having a low volume resistivity, whereas the volume resistivity is reduced to 1.5.times.10.sup.14 .OMEGA..multidot.cm or less. Therefore, discharging is restrained from occurring between IDT electrodes, whereby characteristics are significantly kept from deteriorating. Also, since the volume resistivity of the piezoelectric substrate is not less than 3.6.times.10.sup.10 .OMEGA..multidot.cm, the IDT electrodes are significantly prevented from short-circuiting with each other.
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