A preferred embodiment of the invention is an apparatus for measuring the position of a point with respect to at least one axis. The apparatus includes a reference electrode located at the reference point and at least one axial electrode fixed along the at least one axis. The axial electrode has a signal transmission property, such as resistivity, as measured between a first end and a point along the axis, which signal transmission property varies with the location of the point of measurement. The axial electrode is coupled to the reference electrode, typically capacitively. The apparatus also includes means for applying an electric signal to the reference electrode; means for measuring an output electric signal at the first end of the at least one axial electrode; and means for evaluating the relation between the output electric signal and the input electric signal to determine the position of the reference point relative to the axis. The invention also includes method of using the apparatus to determine the location of the reference point to the axis. The invention includes embodiments of one and more axes.
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