US Patent No: 5,737,115

Number of patents in Portfolio can not be more than 2000

Additive color tristate light valve twisting ball display

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ATTORNEY / AGENT: (SPONSORED)

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Abstract

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A tristate light valve ball for an electrical twisting ball device composed of spheroidal balls rotatably disposed in an elastomer substrate. The ball is composed of segments arrayed substantially parallel to one another, each segment being adjacent to at least one other segment and to no more than two other segments. Adjacent segments are adjoined to one another at substantially planar interfaces. The segments include: a first, interior, nontransparent segment having a first optical modulation characteristic; a second exterior, transparent segment, adjacent to the first segment and having a second optical modulation characteristic; a third, interior, nontransparent segment having a third optical modulation characteristic; and a fourth, exterior, transparent segment adjacent to the third segment. For example, the ball can be made with a black first segment adjacent to a white third segment, surrounded on either side by clear second and fourth exterior segments. The ball has an anisotropy for providing an electrical dipole moment, the electrical dipole moment rendering the ball electrically responsive such that when the ball is rotatably disposed in a nonoscillating electric field while the electrical dipole moment of the ball is provided, the ball tends to rotate to an orientation in which the electrical dipole moment aligns with the field. Also disclosed are: a material made up of a substrate layer in which are disposed the aforementioned balls, with a colored backing joined to a rear surface of the layer; and a method for using a device incorporating the balls.

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First Claim

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Patent Owner(s)

Patent OwnerAddressTotal Patents
XEROX CORPORATIONSTAMFORD, CT13765

International Classification(s)

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  • [Patents Count]

Inventor(s)

Inventor Name Address # of filed Patents Total Citations
Mackinlay, Jock D Palo Alto, CA 39 2568
Stone, Maureen C Los Altos, CA 16 1434

Cited Art Landscape

Patent Info (Count) # Cites Year
 
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Other [Check patent profile for assignment information] (5)
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SEIKO EPSON CORPORATION (1)
* 5,124,818 LCD system having improved contrast ratio 75 1990
 
NIPPON SHEET GLASS CO., LTD. (1)
* 4,919,521 Electromagnetic device 117 1988
 
SONY CORPORATION (1)
* 4,438,160 Method of making a rotary ball display device 150 1983
 
XEROX CORPORATION (5)
* 5,075,186 Image-wise adhesion layers for printing 35 1989
* 5,344,594 Method for the fabrication of multicolored balls for a twisting ball display 210 1992
* 5,262,098 Method and apparatus for fabricating bichromal balls for a twisting ball display 182 1993
* 5,389,945 Writing system including paper-like digitally addressed media and addressing device therefor 266 1993
* 5,383,008 Liquid ink electrostatic image development system 99 1993
 
ORTECH CORPORATION (1)
* 4,810,431 Method of manufacturing plastic particles for a particle display 54 1987
 
DENSITRON (HONG KONG) LIMITED (1)
* 4,958,150 Display devices and display elements thereof 14 1988
 
ULRICH ELECTRONIC GMBH (1)
* 5,189,658 Device for recording information on an optical data carrier 26 1991
 
ETIP ERASABLE THERMOGRAPHIC IMAGING PRODUCTS GMBH (1)
* 4,695,528 Process for forming images using body with reversible fixable and temperature-variable light extinctions 64 1982
 
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (1)
* 5,469,020 Flexible large screen display having multiple light emitting elements sandwiched between crossed electrodes 137 1994
 
KAISER AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONICS CORPORATION (1)
* 4,991,941 Method and apparatus for multi-color display 102 1988
 
IN FOCUS SYSTEMS, INC. (2)
* 4,966,441 Hybrid color display system 113 1989
* 5,050,965 Color display using supertwisted nematic liquid crystal material 70 1989
 
KENT STATE UNIVERSITY, A UNIVERSITY CHARTERED UNDER THE LAWS OF OH. (1)
* 4,890,902 Liquid crystal light modulating materials with selectable viewing angles 129 1988
 
VICTOR COMPANY OF JAPAN, LTD. (1)
* 4,500,172 Two color liquid crystal light valve image projection system with single prepolarizer 64 1981
 
RAYTHEON COMPANY (1)
* 5,363,222 Compact optical system for a single light valve full-color projector 29 1992
 
KENT STATE UNIVERSITY, KENT, OH., A UNIVERSITY OF OH. (1)
* 4,688,900 Light modulating material comprising a liquid crystal dispersion in a plastic matrix 348 1985
 
SHARP KABUSHIKI KAISHA (1)
* 5,216,414 Color liquid crystal display device 13 1990
 
KENT STATE UNIVERSITY (3)
* 4,994,204 Light modulating materials comprising a liquid crystal phase dispersed in a birefringent polymeric phase 141 1989
* 5,251,048 Method and apparatus for electronic switching of a reflective color display 130 1992
* 5,384,067 Grey scale liquid crystal material 127 1992
 
IDEMITSU KOSAN CO., LTD. (1)
* 5,397,503 Liquid crystal composition and information display apparatus using the liquid crystal composition 36 1994
 
THOMSON LICENSING (1)
* 5,315,418 Two path liquid crystal light valve color display with light coupling lens array disposed along the red-green light path 153 1992
 
Guardian Industries Corp. (1)
* 5,570,214 Normally white twisted nematic LCD with retardation films on opposite sides of liquid crystal material for improved viewing zone 45 1993
 
OKI ELECTRIC INDUSTRY CO., LTD. (3)
* 5,157,011 Thermoreversible recording medium, apparatus utilizing the same and method for fabricating the same 38 1990
* 5,249,000 Thermoreversible recording medium, apparatus utilizing the same and method for fabricating the same 30 1992
* 5,262,374 Thermoreversible recording medium, apparatus utilizing the same and method for fabricating the same 34 1992
 
RICOH COMPANY, LTD. (3)
* 4,837,071 Information display medium 50 1987
* 5,219,820 Reversible thermosensitive recording material and method of producing the same 44 1991
* 5,432,534 Reversible thermosensitive coloring composition, recording medium, recording method, and image display apparatus using the recording medium 44 1994
 
T.I.C.-Citizen Co., Ltd. (2)
* 5,526,016 Multicolor display apparatus 44 1995
* 5,515,075 Multicolor display apparatus 40 1995
 
FUJI XEROX CO., LTD. (1)
* 5,155,607 Optical modulation display device and display method using the same 91 1991
 
MITSUBISHI DENKI KABUSHIKI KAISHA (1)
* 5,274,460 Method of and apparatus for rewritable recording and erasing and rewritable recording film 40 1991
* Cited By Examiner

Patent Citation Ranking

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Patent Info (Count) # Cites Year
 
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION (1)
6,518,948 Multichromal twisting ball displays 14 1998
 
KONINKLIJKE PHILIPS ELECTRONICS N.V. (1)
* 2006/0152,475 Electrophoretic display panel 3 2004
 
Other [Check patent profile for assignment information] (2)
6,326,945 Magnetic writing board 7 1999
* 2005/0035,941 Retroreflective electrophoretic displaya and materials for making the same 6 2001
 
CABOT CORPORATION (1)
6,822,781 Gyricon displays containing modified particles 12 2000
 
3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES COMPANY (6)
7,057,599 Microstructures with assisting optical lenses 6 2001
6,700,695 Microstructured segmented electrode film for electronic displays 14 2001
6,577,432 Post and pocket microstructures containing moveable particles having optical effects 13 2001
6,570,700 Microstructures with assisting optical elements to enhance an optical effect 18 2001
6,480,322 Method of improving the respondability of moveable structures in a display 10 2001
* 2002/0130,831 Microstructures with assisting optical lenses 9 2001
 
REVEO, INC. (1)
6,665,042 Electrically switchable polymer liquid crystal and polymer birefringent flake in fluid host systems and optical devices utilizing same 18 2000
 
QUALCOMM MEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (36)
7,710,632 Display device having an array of spatial light modulators with integrated color filters 37 2005
7,626,751 Display device having an array of spatial light modulators with integrated color filters 0 2005
8,362,987 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 0 2005
* 2006/0077,149 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 38 2005
8,031,133 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 14 2005
7,525,730 Method and device for generating white in an interferometric modulator display 19 2005
* 2006/0077,125 Method and device for generating white in an interferometric modulator display 44 2005
8,102,407 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 11 2005
7,911,428 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 25 2005
7,728,800 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 0 2005
* 2006/0066,541 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 62 2005
* 2006/0066,641 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 84 2005
7,483,197 Photonic MEMS and structures 26 2006
7,532,377 Movable micro-electromechanical device 58 2006
* 2006/0268,388 Movable micro-electromechanical device 52 2006
8,004,743 Method and apparatus for providing brightness control in an interferometric modulator (IMOD) display 2 2006
7,773,289 Method and apparatus for providing brightness control in an interferometric modulator (IMOD) display 0 2006
* 2007/0247,704 Method and apparatus for providing brightness control in an interferometric modulator (IMOD) display 40 2006
7,554,711 MEMS devices with stiction bumps 64 2006
* 7,511,875 Moveable micro-electromechanical device 10 2006
* 2007/0139,758 Moveable micro-electromechanical device 9 2006
7,872,792 Method and device for modulating light with multiple electrodes 25 2007
7,852,545 Method and device for modulating light 30 2007
7,808,694 Method and device for modulating light 31 2007
* 2008/0106,782 SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR A MEMS DEVICE 87 2007
8,105,496 Method of fabricating MEMS devices (such as IMod) comprising using a gas phase etchant to remove a layer 8 2008
7,791,787 Moveable micro-electromechanical device 8 2009
* 2009/0135,463 MOVEABLE MICRO-ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE 1 2009
7,830,588 Method of making a light modulating display device and associated transistor circuitry and structures thereof 40 2009
8,098,431 Method and device for generating white in an interferometric modulator display 0 2009
* 2009/0296,191 METHOD AND DEVICE FOR GENERATING WHITE IN AN INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATOR DISPLAY 7 2009
8,928,967 Method and device for modulating light 0 2010
8,848,294 Method and structure capable of changing color saturation 0 2010
9,110,289 Device for modulating light with multiple electrodes 0 2011
* 2011/0170,167 METHOD FOR MODULATING LIGHT WITH MULTIPLE ELECTRODES 38 2011
8,971,675 Interconnect structure for MEMS device 0 2011
 
XEROX CORPORATION (21)
* 5,892,497 Additive color transmissive twisting ball display 42 1995
* 6,162,321 Method for making additive color electric paper without registration or alignment of individual elements 19 1998
* 6,128,124 Additive color electric paper without registration or alignment of individual elements 195 1998
* 6,038,059 Additive color electric paper without registration or alignment of individual elements 18 1998
* 6,118,419 Random electrostatic discharge event indicator 15 1998
* 6,542,283 Gyricon displays utilizing magnetic elements and magnetic trapping 14 1998
6,262,707 Gyricon displays utilizing magnetic addressing and latching mechanism 27 1998
6,251,329 Method of making a gyricon display using magnetic latching 10 1998
6,211,998 Magnetic unlatching and addressing of a gyricon display 46 1998
6,197,228 Method of making a gyricon display using magnetic latching 24 1998
6,174,153 Apparatus for making uniformly magnetized elements for a gyricon display 14 1998
* 6,147,791 Gyricon displays utilizing rotating elements and magnetic latching 230 1998
* 6,110,538 Method of making a gyricon display using magnetic latching 19 1998
* 6,097,531 Method of making uniformly magnetized elements for a gyricon display 206 1998
* 6,122,094 Additive color electric paper without registration or alignment of individual elements 19 1999
6,440,252 Method for rotatable element assembly 10 1999
6,970,154 Fringe-field filter for addressable displays 5 2001
6,897,848 Rotating element sheet material and stylus with gradient field addressing 19 2001
6,690,350 Rotating element sheet material with dual vector field addressing 6 2001
6,846,377 System and method for rotatable element assembly and laminate substrate assembly 8 2002
* 2002/0185,216 System and method for rotatable element assembly and laminate substrate assembly 2 2002
 
SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. (2)
* 8,199,103 System and method of controlling switching display which embodies transmitting/transflective/reflective mode 1 2008
* 2009/0096,967 SYSTEM AND METHOD OF CONTROLLING SWITCHING DISPLAY WHICH EMBODIES TRANSMITTING/TRANSFLECTIVE/REFLECTIVE MODE 1 2008
 
E INK CORPORATION (114)
6,124,851 Electronic book with multiple page displays 373 1995
7,106,296 Electronic book with multiple page displays 95 1996
* 6,120,588 Electronically addressable microencapsulated ink and display thereof 460 1997
7,167,155 Color electrophoretic displays 109 1998
6,727,881 Encapsulated electrophoretic displays and methods and materials for making the same 194 1998
6,515,649 Suspended particle displays and materials for making the same 226 1998
6,262,706 Retroreflective electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 273 1998
6,120,839 Electro-osmotic displays and materials for making the same 363 1998
6,067,185 Process for creating an encapsulated electrophoretic display 378 1998
* 6,017,584 Multi-color electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 445 1998
6,680,725 Methods of manufacturing electronically addressable displays 198 1998
6,445,489 Electrophoretic displays and systems for addressing such displays 235 1999
7,075,502 Full color reflective display with multichromatic sub-pixels 139 1999
6,518,949 Electronic displays using organic-based field effect transistors 204 1999
6,473,072 Microencapsulated electrophoretic electrostatically-addressed media for drawing device applications 411 1999
6,839,158 Encapsulated electrophoretic displays having a monolayer of capsules and materials and methods for making the same 179 1999
6,262,833 Capsules for electrophoretic displays and methods for making the same 240 1999
6,376,828 Illumination system for nonemissive electronic displays 202 1999
6,312,304 Assembly of microencapsulated electronic displays 341 1999
6,422,687 Electronically addressable microencapsulated ink and display thereof 241 1999
6,392,785 Non-spherical cavity electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 227 2000
6,249,271 Retroreflective electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 227 2000
6,545,671 Rotating element sheet material with reversible highlighting 14 2000
6,504,524 Addressing methods for displays having zero time-average field 242 2000
6,377,387 Methods for producing droplets for use in capsule-based electrophoretic displays 236 2000
6,498,674 Rotating element sheet material with generalized containment structure 24 2000
6,531,997 Methods for addressing electrophoretic displays 235 2000
6,693,620 Threshold addressing of electrophoretic displays 230 2000
* 6,504,525 Rotating element sheet material with microstructured substrate and method of use 12 2000
7,030,412 Minimally-patterned semiconductor devices for display applications 129 2000
6,323,989 Electrophoretic displays using nanoparticles 321 2000
6,842,657 Reactive formation of dielectric layers and protection of organic layers in organic semiconductor device fabrication 169 2000
6,847,347 Electromagnetophoretic display system and method 7 2000
6,498,114 Method for forming a patterned semiconductor film 239 2000
6,825,068 Process for fabricating thin film transistors 170 2001
6,549,327 Photochromic gyricon display 37 2001
7,071,913 Retroreflective electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 85 2001
6,683,333 Fabrication of electronic circuit elements using unpatterned semiconductor layers 217 2001
6,967,640 Microencapsulated electrophoretic display with integrated driver 148 2001
* 2003/0020,844 Microencapsulated electrophoretic display with integrated driver 7 2001
6,816,147 Bistable electro-optic display, and method for addressing same 156 2001
* 2002/0021,270 Bistable electro-optic desplay, and method for addressing same 2 2001
6,538,801 Electrophoretic displays using nanoparticles 270 2001
6,900,851 Electro-optic displays and optical systems for addressing such displays 113 2002
7,256,766 Electrophoretic display comprising optical biasing element 80 2002
6,864,875 Full color reflective display with multichromatic sub-pixels 271 2002
6,753,999 Electrophoretic displays in portable devices and systems for addressing such displays 167 2002
* 2003/0011,868 Electrophoretic displays in portable devices and systems for addressing such displays 9 2002
D485294 Electrode structure for an electronic display 141 2002
6,652,075 Electronically addressable microencapsulated ink and display thereof 216 2002
6,704,133 Electro-optic display overlays and systems for addressing such displays 204 2002
6,738,050 Microencapsulated electrophoretic electrostatically addressed media for drawing device applications 228 2002
7,038,655 Electrophoretic ink composed of particles with field dependent mobilities 135 2002
6,865,010 Electrophoretic electronic displays with low-index films 153 2002
* 2003/0214,697 Electrophoretic electronic displays with low-index films 4 2002
7,109,968 Non-spherical cavity electrophoretic displays and methods and materials for making the same 78 2002
7,312,916 Electrophoretic media containing specularly reflective particles 100 2003
7,148,128 Electronically addressable microencapsulated ink and display thereof 112 2003
7,893,435 Flexible electronic circuits and displays including a backplane comprising a patterned metal foil having a plurality of apertures extending therethrough 15 2003
7,002,728 Electrophoretic particles, and processes for the production thereof 106 2004
7,110,163 Electro-optic display and lamination adhesive for use therein 87 2004
* 2004/0252,360 ELECTRO-OPTIC DISPLAY AND LAMINATION ADHESIVE FOR USE THEREIN 12 2004
7,667,684 Methods for achieving improved color in microencapsulated electrophoretic devices 34 2004
* 2004/0190,114 Methods for achieving improved color in microencapsulated electrophoretic devices 98 2004
6,894,677 Electromagnetophoretic display system and method 6 2004
* 2004/0189,766 Electromagnetophoretic display system and method 0 2004
8,466,852 Full color reflective display with multichromatic sub-pixels 16 2004
7,242,513 Encapsulated electrophoretic displays having a monolayer of capsules and materials and methods for making the same 72 2004
* 2004/0217,929 Encapsulated electrophoretic displays having a monolayer of capsules and materials and methods for making the same 0 2004
7,176,880 Use of a storage capacitor to enhance the performance of an active matrix driven electronic display 75 2004
7,365,394 Process for fabricating thin film transistors 67 2004
7,280,094 Bistable electro-optic display, and method for addressing same 102 2004
* 2005/0017,944 BISTABLE ELECTRO-OPTIC DISPLAY, AND METHOD FOR ADDRESSING SAME 7 2004
7,230,750 Electrophoretic media and processes for the production thereof 81 2004
8,139,050 Addressing schemes for electronic displays 8 2005
7,382,363 Microencapsulated electrophoretic display with integrated driver 137 2005
* 2005/0134,554 MICROENCAPSULATED ELECTROPHORETIC DISPLAY WITH INTEGRATED DRIVER 4 2005
7,247,379 Electrophoretic particles, and processes for the production thereof 87 2005
8,115,729 Electrophoretic display element with filler particles 32 2006
7,391,555 Non-spherical cavity electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 73 2006
* 2006/0245,038 NON-SPHERICAL CAVITY ELECTROPHORETIC DISPLAYS AND MATERIALS FOR MAKING THE SAME 0 2006
7,535,624 Electro-optic display and materials for use therein 57 2006
* 2007/0052,757 ELECTRONICALLY ADDRESSABLE MICROENCAPSULATED INK AND DISPLAY THEREOF 58 2006
8,035,886 Electronically addressable microencapsulated ink and display thereof 9 2006
* 2007/0057,908 ELECTRONICALLY ADDRESSABLE MICROENCAPSULATED INK AND DISPLAY THEREOF 53 2006
7,859,637 Use of a storage capacitor to enhance the performance of an active matrix driven electronic display 17 2006
* 2007/0085,818 USE OF A STORAGE CAPACITOR TO ENHANCE THE PERFORMANCE OF AN ACTIVE MATRIX DRIVEN ELECTRONIC DISPLAY 35 2006
7,672,040 Electro-optic displays, and materials for use therein 25 2007
* 2007/0247,697 ELECTRO-OPTIC DISPLAYS, AND MATERIALS FOR USE THEREIN 29 2007
7,583,251 Dielectrophoretic displays 31 2007
7,532,388 Electrophoretic media and processes for the production thereof 42 2007
7,375,875 Electrophoretic media and processes for the production thereof 58 2007
8,089,453 Stylus-based addressing structures for displays 7 2007
7,956,841 Stylus-based addressing structures for displays 13 2007
* 2008/0211,765 STYLUS-BASED ADDRESSING STRUCTURES FOR DISPLAYS 23 2007
8,384,658 Electrostatically addressable electrophoretic display 2 2008
* 2008/0150,888 ELECTROSTATICALLY ADDRESSABLE ELECTROPHORETIC DISPLAY 35 2008
7,746,544 Electro-osmotic displays and materials for making the same 21 2008
* 2009/0027,762 ELECTRO-OSMOTIC DISPLAYS AND MATERIALS FOR MAKING THE SAME 7 2008
7,791,789 Multi-color electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 24 2008
* 2009/0174,651 ADDRESSING SCHEMES FOR ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS 34 2009
7,843,626 Electro-optic display and materials for use therein 14 2009
9,005,494 Preparation of capsules 0 2009
8,305,341 Dielectrophoretic displays 3 2009
9,293,511 Methods for achieving improved color in microencapsulated electrophoretic devices 0 2009
* 2010/0148,385 ELECTROPHORETIC MEDIA AND PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOF 9 2010
8,040,594 Multi-color electrophoretic displays 14 2010
8,593,718 Electro-osmotic displays and materials for making the same 1 2010
* 2010/0207,073 ELECTRO-OSMOTIC DISPLAYS AND MATERIALS FOR MAKING THE SAME 5 2010
8,213,076 Multi-color electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 2 2010
* 2010/0283,806 MULTI-COLOR ELECTROPHORETIC DISPLAYS AND MATERIALS FOR MAKING THE SAME 2 2010
8,441,714 Multi-color electrophoretic displays 10 2011
8,593,721 Multi-color electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 2 2012
9,268,191 Multi-color electrophoretic displays 0 2013
 
UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER (4)
7,042,617 Optical devices having flakes suspended in a host fluid to provide a flake/fluid system providing flakes with angularly dependent optical properties in response to an alternating current electric field due to the dielectric properties of the system 6 2003
* 2004/0196,226 Optical devices having flakes with angularly dependent optical properties in response to an alternating current electric field when the flakes are suspended in a host fluid to provide a flake/fluid system which is conductive 0 2003
6,829,075 Electrically addressable optical devices using a system of composite layered flakes suspended in a fluid host to obtain angularly dependent optical effects 8 2003
* 2004/0233,508 ELECTRICALLY ADDRESSABLE OPTICAL DEVICES USING A SYSTEM OF COMPOSITE LAYERED FLAKES SUSPENDED IN A FLUID HOST TO OBTAIN ANGULARLY DEPENDENT OPTICAL EFFECTS 2 2003
 
COSPHERIC LLC (7)
8,501,272 Hemispherical coating method for micro-elements 0 2007
8,068,271 Rotating element transmissive displays 3 2009
* 2010/0035,377 Transfer Coating Method 6 2009
8,049,954 Color rotating element displays 4 2010
* 2010/0309,543 Color Rotating Element Displays 2 2010
8,233,212 Electro-optic display 2 2011
* 2011/0157,683 ELECTRO-OPTIC DISPLAY 1 2011
 
CBRITE INC. (2)
7,929,198 Electro-optic display 3 2007
* 2008/0100,907 Electro-optic display 6 2007
* Cited By Examiner