US Patent No: 5,737,115

Number of patents in Portfolio can not be more than 2000

Additive color tristate light valve twisting ball display

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Abstract

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A tristate light valve ball for an electrical twisting ball device composed of spheroidal balls rotatably disposed in an elastomer substrate. The ball is composed of segments arrayed substantially parallel to one another, each segment being adjacent to at least one other segment and to no more than two other segments. Adjacent segments are adjoined to one another at substantially planar interfaces. The segments include: a first, interior, nontransparent segment having a first optical modulation characteristic; a second exterior, transparent segment, adjacent to the first segment and having a second optical modulation characteristic; a third, interior, nontransparent segment having a third optical modulation characteristic; and a fourth, exterior, transparent segment adjacent to the third segment. For example, the ball can be made with a black first segment adjacent to a white third segment, surrounded on either side by clear second and fourth exterior segments. The ball has an anisotropy for providing an electrical dipole moment, the electrical dipole moment rendering the ball electrically responsive such that when the ball is rotatably disposed in a nonoscillating electric field while the electrical dipole moment of the ball is provided, the ball tends to rotate to an orientation in which the electrical dipole moment aligns with the field. Also disclosed are: a material made up of a substrate layer in which are disposed the aforementioned balls, with a colored backing joined to a rear surface of the layer; and a method for using a device incorporating the balls.

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First Claim

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Patent Owner(s)

Patent OwnerAddressTotal Patents
XEROX CORPORATIONSTAMFORD, CT13255

International Classification(s)

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Inventor(s)

Inventor Name Address # of filed Patents Total Citations
MacKinlay, Jock D Palo Alto, CA 49 2153
Stone, Maureen C Los Altos, CA 18 1239

Cited Art Landscape

Patent Info (Count) # Cites Year
 
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XEROX CORPORATION (5)
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* 5,344,594 Method for the fabrication of multicolored balls for a twisting ball display 196 1992
* 5,262,098 Method and apparatus for fabricating bichromal balls for a twisting ball display 180 1993
* 5,389,945 Writing system including paper-like digitally addressed media and addressing device therefor 261 1993
* 5,383,008 Liquid ink electrostatic image development system 97 1993
 
KENT STATE UNIVERSITY (3)
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* 5,251,048 Method and apparatus for electronic switching of a reflective color display 125 1992
* 5,384,067 Grey scale liquid crystal material 123 1992
 
OKI ELECTRIC INDUSTRY CO., LTD. (3)
* 5,157,011 Thermoreversible recording medium, apparatus utilizing the same and method for fabricating the same 38 1990
* 5,249,000 Thermoreversible recording medium, apparatus utilizing the same and method for fabricating the same 30 1992
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RICOH COMPANY, LTD. (3)
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IN FOCUS SYSTEMS, INC. (2)
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T.I.C.-Citizen Co., Ltd. (2)
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DENSITRON (HONG KONG) LIMITED (1)
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ETIP ERASABLE THERMOGRAPHIC IMAGING PRODUCTS GMBH (1)
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FUJI XEROX CO., LTD. (1)
* 5,155,607 Optical modulation display device and display method using the same 87 1991
 
GUARDIAN INDUSTRIES CORP. (1)
* 5,570,214 Normally white twisted nematic LCD with retardation films on opposite sides of liquid crystal material for improved viewing zone 44 1993
 
IDEMITSU KOSAN CO., LTD. (1)
* 5,397,503 Liquid crystal composition and information display apparatus using the liquid crystal composition 34 1994
 
Kaiser Aerospace & Electronics Corporation (1)
* 4,991,941 Method and apparatus for multi-color display 87 1988
 
KENT STATE UNIVERSITY, A UNIVERSITY CHARTERED UNDER THE LAWS OF OH. (1)
* 4,890,902 Liquid crystal light modulating materials with selectable viewing angles 129 1988
 
KENT STATE UNIVERSITY, KENT, OH., A UNIVERSITY OF OH. (1)
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MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (1)
* 5,469,020 Flexible large screen display having multiple light emitting elements sandwiched between crossed electrodes 117 1994
 
MITSUBISHI DENKI KABUSHIKI KAISHA (1)
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NIPPON SHEET GLASS CO., LTD. (1)
* 4,919,521 Electromagnetic device 114 1988
 
ORTECH CORPORATION (1)
* 4,810,431 Method of manufacturing plastic particles for a particle display 54 1987
 
RAYTHEON COMPANY (1)
* 5,363,222 Compact optical system for a single light valve full-color projector 29 1992
 
SEIKO EPSON CORPORATION (1)
* 5,124,818 LCD system having improved contrast ratio 73 1990
 
SHARP KABUSHIKI KAISHA (1)
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SONY CORPORATION (1)
* 4,438,160 Method of making a rotary ball display device 147 1983
 
THOMSON LICENSING (1)
* 5,315,418 Two path liquid crystal light valve color display with light coupling lens array disposed along the red-green light path 152 1992
 
ULRICH ELECTRONIC GMBH (1)
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VICTOR COMPANY OF JAPAN, LTD. (1)
* 4,500,172 Two color liquid crystal light valve image projection system with single prepolarizer 61 1981
 
Other [Check patent profile for assignment information] (5)
* 4,663,083 Electro-optical dipole suspension with reflective-absorptive-transmissive characteristics 180 1984
* 4,948,232 Device for the presentation of information with rollable plastic substrate 113 1989
* 5,432,526 Liquid crystal display having conductive cooling 77 1990
* 5,132,675 Display devices and display elements thereof 3 1990
* RE34942 Surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal devices with means for aligning LC molecules at .OMEGA.(.alpha.) from normal to the means 5 1994
* Cited By Examiner

Patent Citation Ranking

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Patent Info (Count) # Cites Year
 
E INK CORPORATION (89)
6,124,851 Electronic book with multiple page displays 331 1995
7,106,296 Electronic book with multiple page displays 86 1996
* 6,120,588 Electronically addressable microencapsulated ink and display thereof 404 1997
7,167,155 Color electrophoretic displays 92 1998
6,727,881 Encapsulated electrophoretic displays and methods and materials for making the same 175 1998
6,515,649 Suspended particle displays and materials for making the same 205 1998
6,262,706 Retroreflective electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 253 1998
6,120,839 Electro-osmotic displays and materials for making the same 340 1998
6,067,185 Process for creating an encapsulated electrophoretic display 356 1998
* 6,017,584 Multi-color electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 423 1998
6,680,725 Methods of manufacturing electronically addressable displays 171 1998
6,445,489 Electrophoretic displays and systems for addressing such displays 206 1999
7,075,502 Full color reflective display with multichromatic sub-pixels 111 1999
6,518,949 Electronic displays using organic-based field effect transistors 189 1999
6,473,072 Microencapsulated electrophoretic electrostatically-addressed media for drawing device applications 356 1999
6,839,158 Encapsulated electrophoretic displays having a monolayer of capsules and materials and methods for making the same 161 1999
6,262,833 Capsules for electrophoretic displays and methods for making the same 219 1999
6,376,828 Illumination system for nonemissive electronic displays 184 1999
6,312,304 Assembly of microencapsulated electronic displays 310 1999
6,422,687 Electronically addressable microencapsulated ink and display thereof 197 1999
6,392,785 Non-spherical cavity electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 210 2000
6,249,271 Retroreflective electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 210 2000
6,545,671 Rotating element sheet material with reversible highlighting 13 2000
6,504,524 Addressing methods for displays having zero time-average field 212 2000
6,377,387 Methods for producing droplets for use in capsule-based electrophoretic displays 216 2000
6,498,674 Rotating element sheet material with generalized containment structure 24 2000
6,531,997 Methods for addressing electrophoretic displays 205 2000
6,693,620 Threshold addressing of electrophoretic displays 199 2000
* 6,504,525 Rotating element sheet material with microstructured substrate and method of use 12 2000
7,030,412 Minimally-patterned semiconductor devices for display applications 107 2000
6,323,989 Electrophoretic displays using nanoparticles 298 2000
6,842,657 Reactive formation of dielectric layers and protection of organic layers in organic semiconductor device fabrication 152 2000
6,847,347 Electromagnetophoretic display system and method 6 2000
6,498,114 Method for forming a patterned semiconductor film 219 2000
6,825,068 Process for fabricating thin film transistors 150 2001
6,549,327 Photochromic gyricon display 37 2001
7,071,913 Retroreflective electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 73 2001
6,683,333 Fabrication of electronic circuit elements using unpatterned semiconductor layers 185 2001
6,967,640 Microencapsulated electrophoretic display with integrated driver 105 2001
6,816,147 Bistable electro-optic display, and method for addressing same 141 2001
6,538,801 Electrophoretic displays using nanoparticles 236 2001
6,900,851 Electro-optic displays and optical systems for addressing such displays 98 2002
7,256,766 Electrophoretic display comprising optical biasing element 67 2002
6,864,875 Full color reflective display with multichromatic sub-pixels 225 2002
6,753,999 Electrophoretic displays in portable devices and systems for addressing such displays 151 2002
D485294 Electrode structure for an electronic display 128 2002
6,652,075 Electronically addressable microencapsulated ink and display thereof 167 2002
6,704,133 Electro-optic display overlays and systems for addressing such displays 178 2002
6,738,050 Microencapsulated electrophoretic electrostatically addressed media for drawing device applications 192 2002
7,038,655 Electrophoretic ink composed of particles with field dependent mobilities 101 2002
6,865,010 Electrophoretic electronic displays with low-index films 136 2002
7,109,968 Non-spherical cavity electrophoretic displays and methods and materials for making the same 68 2002
7,312,916 Electrophoretic media containing specularly reflective particles 77 2003
7,148,128 Electronically addressable microencapsulated ink and display thereof 74 2003
7,893,435 Flexible electronic circuits and displays including a backplane comprising a patterned metal foil having a plurality of apertures extending therethrough 10 2003
7,002,728 Electrophoretic particles, and processes for the production thereof 90 2004
7,110,163 Electro-optic display and lamination adhesive for use therein 77 2004
7,667,684 Methods for achieving improved color in microencapsulated electrophoretic devices 24 2004
6,894,677 Electromagnetophoretic display system and method 2 2004
8,466,852 Full color reflective display with multichromatic sub-pixels 4 2004
7,242,513 Encapsulated electrophoretic displays having a monolayer of capsules and materials and methods for making the same 62 2004
7,176,880 Use of a storage capacitor to enhance the performance of an active matrix driven electronic display 65 2004
7,365,394 Process for fabricating thin film transistors 57 2004
7,280,094 Bistable electro-optic display, and method for addressing same 92 2004
7,230,750 Electrophoretic media and processes for the production thereof 67 2004
8,139,050 Addressing schemes for electronic displays 5 2005
7,382,363 Microencapsulated electrophoretic display with integrated driver 87 2005
7,247,379 Electrophoretic particles, and processes for the production thereof 71 2005
8,115,729 Electrophoretic display element with filler particles 15 2006
7,391,555 Non-spherical cavity electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 61 2006
7,535,624 Electro-optic display and materials for use therein 42 2006
8,035,886 Electronically addressable microencapsulated ink and display thereof 5 2006
7,859,637 Use of a storage capacitor to enhance the performance of an active matrix driven electronic display 13 2006
7,672,040 Electro-optic displays, and materials for use therein 20 2007
7,583,251 Dielectrophoretic displays 26 2007
7,532,388 Electrophoretic media and processes for the production thereof 31 2007
7,375,875 Electrophoretic media and processes for the production thereof 46 2007
8,089,453 Stylus-based addressing structures for displays 6 2007
7,956,841 Stylus-based addressing structures for displays 9 2007
8,384,658 Electrostatically addressable electrophoretic display 0 2008
7,746,544 Electro-osmotic displays and materials for making the same 16 2008
7,791,789 Multi-color electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 19 2008
7,843,626 Electro-optic display and materials for use therein 12 2009
8,305,341 Dielectrophoretic displays 1 2009
8,040,594 Multi-color electrophoretic displays 5 2010
8,593,718 Electro-osmotic displays and materials for making the same 0 2010
8,213,076 Multi-color electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 1 2010
8,441,714 Multi-color electrophoretic displays 1 2011
8,593,721 Multi-color electrophoretic displays and materials for making the same 0 2012
 
QUALCOMM MEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (22)
7,710,632 Display device having an array of spatial light modulators with integrated color filters 30 2005
7,626,751 Display device having an array of spatial light modulators with integrated color filters 0 2005
8,362,987 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 0 2005
8,031,133 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 12 2005
7,525,730 Method and device for generating white in an interferometric modulator display 17 2005
8,102,407 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 11 2005
7,911,428 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 21 2005
7,728,800 Method and device for manipulating color in a display 0 2005
7,483,197 Photonic MEMS and structures 18 2006
7,532,377 Movable micro-electromechanical device 38 2006
8,004,743 Method and apparatus for providing brightness control in an interferometric modulator (IMOD) display 2 2006
7,773,289 Method and apparatus for providing brightness control in an interferometric modulator (IMOD) display 0 2006
7,554,711 MEMS devices with stiction bumps 44 2006
* 7,511,875 Moveable micro-electromechanical device 5 2006
7,872,792 Method and device for modulating light with multiple electrodes 11 2007
7,852,545 Method and device for modulating light 16 2007
7,808,694 Method and device for modulating light 16 2007
8,105,496 Method of fabricating MEMS devices (such as IMod) comprising using a gas phase etchant to remove a layer 2 2008
7,791,787 Moveable micro-electromechanical device 2 2009
7,830,588 Method of making a light modulating display device and associated transistor circuitry and structures thereof 24 2009
8,098,431 Method and device for generating white in an interferometric modulator display 0 2009
8,848,294 Method and structure capable of changing color saturation 0 2010
 
XEROX CORPORATION (20)
* 5,892,497 Additive color transmissive twisting ball display 41 1995
* 6,162,321 Method for making additive color electric paper without registration or alignment of individual elements 18 1998
* 6,128,124 Additive color electric paper without registration or alignment of individual elements 177 1998
* 6,038,059 Additive color electric paper without registration or alignment of individual elements 18 1998
* 6,118,419 Random electrostatic discharge event indicator 14 1998
* 6,542,283 Gyricon displays utilizing magnetic elements and magnetic trapping 14 1998
6,262,707 Gyricon displays utilizing magnetic addressing and latching mechanism 27 1998
6,251,329 Method of making a gyricon display using magnetic latching 10 1998
6,211,998 Magnetic unlatching and addressing of a gyricon display 45 1998
6,197,228 Method of making a gyricon display using magnetic latching 24 1998
6,174,153 Apparatus for making uniformly magnetized elements for a gyricon display 14 1998
* 6,147,791 Gyricon displays utilizing rotating elements and magnetic latching 212 1998
* 6,110,538 Method of making a gyricon display using magnetic latching 19 1998
* 6,097,531 Method of making uniformly magnetized elements for a gyricon display 188 1998
* 6,122,094 Additive color electric paper without registration or alignment of individual elements 18 1999
6,440,252 Method for rotatable element assembly 10 1999
6,970,154 Fringe-field filter for addressable displays 5 2001
6,897,848 Rotating element sheet material and stylus with gradient field addressing 16 2001
6,690,350 Rotating element sheet material with dual vector field addressing 5 2001
6,846,377 System and method for rotatable element assembly and laminate substrate assembly 8 2002
 
3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES COMPANY (5)
7,057,599 Microstructures with assisting optical lenses 6 2001
6,700,695 Microstructured segmented electrode film for electronic displays 11 2001
6,577,432 Post and pocket microstructures containing moveable particles having optical effects 13 2001
6,570,700 Microstructures with assisting optical elements to enhance an optical effect 18 2001
6,480,322 Method of improving the respondability of moveable structures in a display 10 2001
 
COSPHERIC LLC (3)
8,501,272 Hemispherical coating method for micro-elements 0 2007
8,068,271 Rotating element transmissive displays 3 2009
8,049,954 Color rotating element displays 4 2010
 
CBRITE INC. (2)
7,929,198 Electro-optic display 2 2007
8,233,212 Electro-optic display 1 2011
 
UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER (2)
7,042,617 Optical devices having flakes suspended in a host fluid to provide a flake/fluid system providing flakes with angularly dependent optical properties in response to an alternating current electric field due to the dielectric properties of the system 6 2003
6,829,075 Electrically addressable optical devices using a system of composite layered flakes suspended in a fluid host to obtain angularly dependent optical effects 7 2003
 
CABOT CORPORATION (1)
6,822,781 Gyricon displays containing modified particles 11 2000
 
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION (1)
6,518,948 Multichromal twisting ball displays 12 1998
 
REVEO, INC. (1)
6,665,042 Electrically switchable polymer liquid crystal and polymer birefringent flake in fluid host systems and optical devices utilizing same 16 2000
 
SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD. (1)
* 8,199,103 System and method of controlling switching display which embodies transmitting/transflective/reflective mode 1 2008
 
Other [Check patent profile for assignment information] (1)
6,326,945 Magnetic writing board 7 1999
* Cited By Examiner