Low noise optical probe

Number of patents in Portfolio can not be more than 2000

United States of America Patent

PATENT NO 6088607
SERIAL NO

08790674

Stats

ATTORNEY / AGENT: (SPONSORED)

Importance

Loading Importance Indicators... loading....

Abstract

See full text

An optical probe for measurements, which is particularly suited to reduce noise in measurements taken on an easily compressible material, such as a finger, a toe, a forehead, an earlobe, or a lip. The probe includes a base having an aperture which leads to a chamber. The base is placed adjacent a portion of the material, the chamber being placed directly adjacent any easily compressible portion of the material. A photodetector is located within the chamber and does not contact the material. A light emitting diode (LED) is affixed to the material, opposite the photodetector and above the chamber. The material which is supported by the aperture and therefore rests above or has intruded into the chamber is inhibited from compression since nothing comes in contact with this portion of the material, even when the material moves. Thus, light from the LED is directed through a stabilized portion of the material, i.e., the optical path length through which light travels is stabilized, even during motion of the material. This reduces noise in the signal measured by the photodetector. A scattering medium is interposed between the LED and the material, between the material and the photodetector, or between the LED and the material as well as between the material and the photodetector. The scattering medium is used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the received optical signal.

Loading the Abstract Image... loading....

First Claim

See full text

Family

Loading Family data... loading....

Patent Owner(s)

Patent OwnerAddressTotal Patents
JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A.NEW YORK, NY1983

International Classification(s)

  • [Classification Symbol]
  • [Patents Count]

Inventor(s)

Inventor Name Address # of filed Patents Total Citations
Diab, Mohamed Kheir Laguna Niguel, CA 36 14902
Kiani, Massi E Laguna Niguel, CA 90 25225
Lepper, Jr James M Trabuco Canyon, CA 17 9221

Cited Art Landscape

Patent Info (Count) # Cites Year
 
Other [Check patent profile for assignment information] (2)
* 5031608 Protective guard aid device designed for injured and wounded fingers and/or toes 21 1987
* 5125403 Device and method for engagement of an oximeter probe 131 1991
 
SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INSTITUTE (1)
* 4880304 Optical sensor for pulse oximeter 180 1987
 
SMITHS INDUSTRIES MEDICAL SYSTEMS, INC. (1)
* 5080098 Non-invasive sensor 74 1989
 
OMRON HEALTHCARE CO., LTD. (1)
* 5224478 Reflecting-type oxymeter probe 181 1992
 
HAIR ART, INC. (1)
* 4867165 Method for determining the perfusion 57 1987
 
Omron Tateisi Electronics Co. (1)
* 4927264 Non-invasive measuring method and apparatus of blood constituents 233 1988
 
UNION TRUST COMPANY (2)
* 4865038 Sensor appliance for non-invasive monitoring 251 1986
* 5170786 Reusable probe system 192 1991
 
ROADMASTER CORPORATION (1)
* 4334544 Ear lobe clip with heart beat sensor 82 1980
 
DUKE UNIVERSITY (2)
* 4321930 Apparatus for monitoring metabolism in body organs 208 1980
* 4380240 Apparatus for monitoring metabolism in body organs 178 1981
 
TRW INC. (1)
* 4350165 Medical electrode assembly 89 1980
 
NEDERLANDSE ORGANISATIE VOOR TOEGEPAST-NATUURWETENSCHAPPELIJK ONDERZOEK TNO (1)
* 4406289 Device for the indirect, non-invasive and continuous measurement of blood pressure 126 1981
 
SOMANETICS CORPORATION (1)
* 5217013 Patient sensor for optical cerebral oximeter and the like 205 1991
 
JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A. (2)
* 5337744 Low noise finger cot probe 573 1993
* 5452717 Finger-cot probe 560 1994
 
JOHNSON & JOHNSON MEDICAL, INC. (2)
* 4825879 Pulse oximeter sensor 219 1987
* 4825872 Finger sensor for pulse oximetry system 190 1988
 
Lawrence Medical Systems, Inc. (1)
* 4859057 Oximeter apparatus 168 1987
 
PhysioDynamics, Inc. (1)
* 5109848 Electrotherapeutic apparatus 17 1989
 
SENSORMEDICS CORPORATION (1)
* 4824242 Non-invasive oximeter and method 279 1986
 
Nicolay GmbH (1)
* 4907594 Method for the determination of the saturation of the blood of a living organism with oxygen and electronic circuit for performing this method 113 1988
 
NELLCOR, INCORPORATED (1)
* 4928691 Lingual oximeter probe 42 1987
 
IMPERIAL CHEMICAL INDUSTRIES PLC (1)
* 4528986 Apparatus for determining a discolored skin area on the surface of skin 19 1982
 
PHILIPS ELECTRONICS NORTH AMERICA CORPORATION;INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY & STANDARDS (1)
* 5058588 Oximeter and medical sensor therefor 253 1989
 
NELLCOR PURITAN BENNETT INCORPORATED (9)
* 4621643 Calibrated optical oximeter probe 380 1986
* 4913150 Method and apparatus for the automatic calibration of signals employed in oximetry 303 1986
* 4700708 Calibrated optical oximeter probe 380 1986
* 4830014 Sensor having cutaneous conformance 258 1987
* 4938218 Perinatal pulse oximetry sensor 374 1988
* 5109849 Perinatal pulse oximetry sensor 192 1990
* 5099842 Perinatal pulse oximetry probe 161 1990
* 5246003 Disposable pulse oximeter sensor 272 1992
* 5469845 Disposable pulse oximeter sensor 229 1993
* Cited By Examiner

Patent Citation Ranking

Forward Cite Landscape

Patent Info (Count) # Cites Year
 
Other [Check patent profile for assignment information] (3)
* 2004/0113,245 Semiconductor device and process for fabricating the same 4 2003
* 2004/0204,638 Signal processing apparatus and method 100 2004
* 2007/0073,127 Parameter compensated physiological monitor 13 2006
 
CERCACOR LABORATORIES, INC. (44)
7003338 Method and apparatus for reducing coupling between signals 436 2003
7027849 Blood parameter measurement system 516 2003
* 2004/0107,065 Blood parameter measurement system 56 2003
7865222 Method and apparatus for reducing coupling between signals in a measurement system 199 2006
8224411 Noninvasive multi-parameter patient monitor 162 2006
8190223 Noninvasive multi-parameter patient monitor 168 2006
8130105 Noninvasive multi-parameter patient monitor 200 2006
8050728 Multiple wavelength sensor drivers 187 2006
7957780 Physiological parameter confidence measure 197 2006
7764982 Multiple wavelength sensor emitters 212 2006
7761127 Multiple wavelength sensor substrate 227 2006
7729733 Configurable physiological measurement system 237 2006
7647083 Multiple wavelength sensor equalization 245 2006
7596398 Multiple wavelength sensor attachment 243 2006
8998809 Systems and methods for calibrating minimally invasive and non-invasive physiological sensor devices 42 2007
8781544 Multiple wavelength optical sensor 65 2008
7563110 Multiple wavelength sensor interconnect 247 2008
8385996 Multiple wavelength sensor emitters 124 2009
8515509 Multi-stream emitter for noninvasive measurement of blood constituents 120 2009
8301217 Multiple wavelength sensor emitters 120 2009
8634889 Configurable physiological measurement system 90 2010
8600467 Optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 88 2010
8255027 Multiple wavelength sensor substrate 133 2010
8571618 Adaptive calibration system for spectrophotometric measurements 87 2010
8676286 Method and apparatus for reducing coupling between signals in a measurement system 88 2011
8428967 Spot check monitor credit system 124 2011
8718735 Physiological parameter confidence measure 78 2011
9176141 Physiological monitor calibration system 34 2011
8483787 Multiple wavelength sensor drivers 122 2011
8626255 Noninvasive multi-parameter patient monitor 90 2012
8560032 Noninvasive multi-parameter patient monitor 111 2012
9445759 Blood glucose calibration system 5 2012
8849365 Multiple wavelength sensor emitters 58 2013
8929964 Multiple wavelength sensor drivers 49 2013
9131882 Noninvasive multi-parameter patient monitor 38 2013
9138182 Optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 35 2013
9787568 Physiological test credit method 0 2013
8912909 Noninvasive multi-parameter patient monitor 49 2013
9241662 Configurable physiological measurement system 20 2013
9084569 Method and apparatus for reducing coupling between signals in a measurement system 39 2014
9167995 Physiological parameter confidence measure 36 2014
9750443 Multiple wavelength sensor emitters 0 2014
9351675 Noninvasive multi-parameter patient monitor 18 2014
9549696 Physiological parameter confidence measure 5 2015
 
NELLCOR PURITAN BENNETT LLC (2)
7720516 Motion compatible sensor for non-invasive optical blood analysis 16 2004
* 2005/0070,773 Motion compatible sensor for non-invasive optical blood analysis 157 2004
 
RADIOMETER BASEL AG (1)
6654622 Device for the combined measurement of the arterial oxygen saturation and the transcutaneous CO2 partial pressure on an ear lobe 124 1999
 
LYNN, LAWRENCE ALLAN (1)
9521971 System and method for automatic detection of a plurality of SPO2 time series pattern types 0 2012
 
Angiologix, Inc. (1)
* 2010/0298,717 METHOD FOR NON-EVASIVELY DETERMINING AN ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AND A DEVICE FOR CARRYING OUT SAID METHOD 4 2006
 
LAWRENCE A. LYNN (1)
9042952 System and method for automatic detection of a plurality of SPO2 time series pattern types 4 2006
 
Ceracor Laboratories, Inc. (2)
8447374 Systems and methods for determining blood oxygen saturation values using complex number encoding 1 2008
8688183 Emitter driver for noninvasive patient monitor 6 2010
 
COVIDIEN LP (152)
7810359 Headband with tension indicator 4 2003
7698909 Headband with tension indicator 3 2004
7689259 Pulse oximeter sensor with piece-wise function 4 2004
7657294 Compliant diaphragm medical sensor and technique for using the same 20 2005
7657295 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 20 2005
8092379 Method and system for determining when to reposition a physiological sensor 0 2005
7904130 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 4 2005
7899510 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 13 2005
7869850 Medical sensor for reducing motion artifacts and technique for using the same 4 2005
7725146 System and method for pre-processing waveforms 15 2005
7725147 System and method for removing artifacts from waveforms 50 2005
8233954 Mucosal sensor for the assessment of tissue and blood constituents and technique for using the same 6 2005
8133176 Method and circuit for indicating quality and accuracy of physiological measurements 6 2005
8078246 Pulse oximeter sensor with piece-wise function 1 2005
8062221 Sensor for tissue gas detection and technique for using the same 10 2005
7881762 Clip-style medical sensor and technique for using the same 11 2005
8983800 Selection of preset filter parameters based on signal quality 0 2005
8095192 Signal quality metrics design for qualifying data for a physiological monitor 14 2005
7979102 Hat-based oximeter sensor 4 2006
* 2007/0208,259 Patient monitoring alarm escalation system and method 6 2006
8073518 Clip-style medical sensor and technique for using the same 15 2006
8380271 System and method for generating customizable audible beep tones and alarms 0 2006
8433383 Stacked adhesive optical sensor 1 2006
8195262 Switch-mode oximeter LED drive with a single inductor 0 2006
7877126 Hat-based oximeter sensor 4 2006
7877127 Hat-based oximeter sensor 3 2006
7813779 Hat-based oximeter sensor 3 2006
7809420 Hat-based oximeter sensor 41 2006
8412297 Forehead sensor placement 0 2006
7899509 Forehead sensor placement 0 2006
7822453 Forehead sensor placement 3 2006
7738937 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 2 2006
7693559 Medical sensor having a deformable region and technique for using the same 2 2006
7684843 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 2 2006
7657296 Unitary medical sensor assembly and technique for using the same 15 2006
7647084 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 3 2006
7574244 Compliant diaphragm medical sensor and technique for using the same 12 2006
8060171 Medical sensor for reducing motion artifacts and technique for using the same 4 2006
7650177 Medical sensor for reducing motion artifacts and technique for using the same 7 2006
8145288 Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same 2 2006
7729736 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 2 2006
7676253 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 5 2006
8219170 System and method for practicing spectrophotometry using light emitting nanostructure devices 7 2006
8396527 Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same 1 2006
8195264 Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same 1 2006
8190224 Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same 5 2006
8190225 Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same 3 2006
8175671 Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same 3 2006
7869849 Opaque, electrically nonconductive region on a medical sensor 8 2006
7890153 System and method for mitigating interference in pulse oximetry 1 2006
7796403 Means for mechanical registration and mechanical-electrical coupling of a faraday shield to a photodetector and an electrical circuit 4 2006
8728059 System and method for assuring validity of monitoring parameter in combination with a therapeutic device 1 2006
8175667 Symmetric LED array for pulse oximetry 0 2006
8068890 Pulse oximetry sensor switchover 0 2006
8068891 Symmetric LED array for pulse oximetry 0 2006
7684842 System and method for preventing sensor misuse 5 2006
7680522 Method and apparatus for detecting misapplied sensors 4 2006
* 2008/0081,970 Pulse oximetry sensor switchover 14 2006
8401606 Nuisance alarm reductions in a physiological monitor 1 2006
7499740 Techniques for detecting heart pulses and reducing power consumption in sensors 26 2007
8483790 Non-adhesive oximeter sensor for sensitive skin 3 2007
8280469 Method for detection of aberrant tissue spectra 2 2007
8265724 Cancellation of light shunting 1 2007
7894869 Multiple configuration medical sensor and technique for using the same 18 2007
7794266 Device and method for reducing crosstalk 0 2007
8204567 Signal demodulation 0 2007
* 2009/0154,573 Signal Demodulation 2 2007
8352004 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 3 2007
8346328 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 27 2007
8401607 Nuisance alarm reductions in a physiological monitor 3 2008
8702606 Patient monitoring help video system and method 0 2008
8423109 Method for enhancing pulse oximery calculations in the presence of correlated artifacts 2 2008
8071935 Optical detector with an overmolded faraday shield 6 2008
7887345 Single use connector for pulse oximetry sensors 2 2008
7880884 System and method for coating and shielding electronic sensor components 4 2008
D626561 Circular satseconds indicator and triangular saturation pattern detection indicator for a patient monitor display panel 16 2008
D626562 Triangular saturation pattern detection indicator for a patient monitor display panel 22 2008
8315684 Oximeter ambient light cancellation 0 2008
8364220 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 30 2008
8257274 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 2 2008
8968193 System and method for enabling a research mode on physiological monitors 0 2008
8914088 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 0 2008
8423112 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 0 2008
8417309 Medical sensor 1 2008
8386000 System and method for photon density wave pulse oximetry and pulse hemometry 1 2008
8364221 Patient monitoring alarm escalation system and method 4 2008
7890154 Selection of ensemble averaging weights for a pulse oximeter based on signal quality metrics 0 2008
8092993 Hydrogel thin film for use as a biosensor 0 2008
8577434 Coaxial LED light sources 18 2008
8452364 System and method for attaching a sensor to a patient's skin 3 2008
8442608 System and method for estimating physiological parameters by deconvolving artifacts 0 2008
8366613 LED drive circuit for pulse oximetry and method for using same 2 2008
8070508 Method and apparatus for aligning and securing a cable strain relief 2 2008
8897850 Sensor with integrated living hinge and spring 1 2008
8199007 Flex circuit snap track for a biometric sensor 0 2008
8352009 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 6 2009
8386002 Optically aligned pulse oximetry sensor and technique for using the same 0 2009
7658652 Device and method for reducing crosstalk 2 2009
8750953 Methods and systems for alerting practitioners to physiological conditions 1 2009
8275553 System and method for evaluating physiological parameter data 19 2009
8452366 Medical monitoring device with flexible circuitry 1 2009
* 8221319 Medical device for assessing intravascular blood volume and technique for using the same 4 2009
8437822 System and method for estimating blood analyte concentration 0 2009
8292809 Detecting chemical components from spectroscopic observations 0 2009
8140272 System and method for unmixing spectroscopic observations with nonnegative matrix factorization 0 2009
8112375 Wavelength selection and outlier detection in reduced rank linear models 3 2009
8364224 System and method for facilitating sensor and monitor communication 3 2009
8007441 Pulse oximeter with alternate heart-rate determination 23 2009
8509869 Method and apparatus for detecting and analyzing variations in a physiologic parameter 2 2009
8634891 Method and system for self regulation of sensor component contact pressure 0 2009
8352010 Folding medical sensor and technique for using the same 0 2009
8238994 Adjusting parameters used in pulse oximetry analysis 1 2009
8311602 Compliant diaphragm medical sensor and technique for using the same 0 2009
8315685 Flexible medical sensor enclosure 0 2009
9010634 System and method for linking patient data to a patient and providing sensor quality assurance 0 2009
8505821 System and method for providing sensor quality assurance 2 2009
8311601 Reflectance and/or transmissive pulse oximeter 1 2009
8391941 System and method for memory switching for multiple configuration medical sensor 0 2009
8494786 Exponential sampling of red and infrared signals 1 2009
8433382 Transmission mode photon density wave system and method 1 2009
8417310 Digital switching in multi-site sensor 0 2009
8494606 Photoplethysmography with controlled application of sensor pressure 0 2009
8428675 Nanofiber adhesives used in medical devices 3 2009
8528185 Bi-stable medical sensor and technique for using the same 1 2009
8788001 Time-division multiplexing in a multi-wavelength photon density wave system 0 2009
8704666 Medical device interface customization systems and methods 28 2009
8494604 Wavelength-division multiplexing in a multi-wavelength photon density wave system 0 2009
8515511 Sensor with an optical coupling material to improve plethysmographic measurements and method of using the same 0 2009
8376955 Spectroscopic method and system for assessing tissue temperature 0 2009
8224412 Pulse oximeter sensor with piece-wise function 0 2010
8515515 Medical sensor with compressible light barrier and technique for using the same 0 2010
8744543 System and method for removing artifacts from waveforms 0 2010
8649839 Motion compatible sensor for non-invasive optical blood analysis 1 2010
8260391 Medical sensor for reducing motion artifacts and technique for using the same 1 2010
8452367 Forehead sensor placement 1 2010
8930145 Light focusing continuous wave photoacoustic spectroscopy and its applications to patient monitoring 2 2010
8798704 Photoacoustic spectroscopy method and system to discern sepsis from shock 0 2010
D736250 Portion of a display panel with an indicator icon 5 2010
8560036 Selection of ensemble averaging weights for a pulse oximeter based on signal quality metrics 1 2010
8660626 System and method for mitigating interference in pulse oximetry 0 2011
8600469 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 0 2011
8965473 Medical sensor for reducing motion artifacts and technique for using the same 1 2011
8437826 Clip-style medical sensor and technique for using the same 0 2011
8577436 Medical sensor for reducing signal artifacts and technique for using the same 0 2012
8781753 System and method for evaluating physiological parameter data 1 2012
8874181 Oximeter ambient light cancellation 0 2012
8838196 Nuisance alarm reductions in a physiological monitor 0 2013
8818475 Method for enhancing pulse oximetry calculations in the presence of correlated artifacts 0 2013
9597023 Oximetry assembly 0 2013
9585606 Oximetry assembly 0 2013
9380969 Systems and methods for varying a sampling rate of a signal 0 2013
9351674 Method for enhancing pulse oximetry calculations in the presence of correlated artifacts 0 2014
 
HID GLOBAL CORPORATION (41)
6628809 Apparatus and method for identification of individuals by near-infrared spectrum 64 1999
7890158 Apparatus and method of biometric determination using specialized optical spectroscopy systems 13 2001
7613504 Spectroscopic cross-channel method and apparatus for improved optical measurements of tissue 6 2002
6816605 Methods and systems for biometric identification of individuals using linear optical spectroscopy 76 2003
7620212 Electro-optical sensor 40 2003
7203345 Apparatus and method for identification of individuals by near-infrared spectrum 9 2003
7147153 Multispectral biometric sensor 74 2004
7263213 Methods and systems for estimation of personal characteristics from biometric measurements 70 2004
7347365 Combined total-internal-reflectance and tissue imaging systems and methods 37 2004
7539330 Multispectral liveness determination 38 2005
7460696 Multispectral imaging biometrics 32 2005
7394919 Multispectral biometric imaging 27 2005
7440597 Liveness sensor 20 2005
7386152 Noninvasive alcohol sensor 27 2005
7668350 Comparative texture analysis of tissue for biometric spoof detection 17 2005
7627151 Systems and methods for improved biometric feature definition 29 2005
7801338 Multispectral biometric sensors 19 2006
7735729 Biometric sensor 18 2006
7819311 Multispectral biometric sensor 20 2006
7751594 White-light spectral biometric sensors 17 2006
7545963 Texture-biometrics sensor 28 2006
7804984 Spatial-spectral fingerprint spoof detection 25 2006
7801339 Biometrics with spatiospectral spoof detection 23 2006
7508965 System and method for robust fingerprint acquisition 19 2006
8285010 Biometrics based on locally consistent features 6 2008
8229185 Hygienic biometric sensors 15 2008
8355545 Biometric detection using spatial, temporal, and/or spectral techniques 2 2008
8175346 Whole-hand multispectral biometric imaging 5 2008
7995808 Contactless multispectral biometric capture 21 2008
9487398 Apparatus and method of biometric determination using specialized optical spectroscopy systems 0 2008
7831072 Multispectral imaging biometrics 24 2008
7835554 Multispectral imaging biometrics 25 2008
8165357 Two camera biometric imaging 6 2009
8184873 White-light spectral biometric sensors 1 2010
8872908 Dual-imager biometric sensor 2 2010
8731250 Multiplexed biometric imaging 2 2010
8787630 Multispectral barcode imaging 1 2011
8781181 Contactless multispectral biometric capture 1 2011
8570149 Biometric imaging using an optical adaptive interface 3 2011
8831297 Contactless multispectral biometric capture 1 2011
8913800 Optical biometrics imaging with films 1 2012
 
RHYTHM DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS, INC. (1)
9782132 Health monitoring systems and methods 0 2014
 
MASIMO LABORATORIES, INC. (2)
6850787 Signal component processor 522 2002
9717425 Noise shielding for a noninvaise device 0 2013
 
Masimo Corporation, Inc. (2)
8255028 Physiological monitor 144 2006
8255026 Patient monitor capable of monitoring the quality of attached probes and accessories 165 2007
 
JPMORGAN CHASE BANK, N.A. (259)
8560034 Signal processing apparatus 130 1998
7962190 Signal processing apparatus 180 1998
7328053 Signal processing apparatus 311 1998
6792300 Low-noise optical probes for reducing light piping 497 2001
6985764 Flex circuit shielded optical sensor 466 2002
* 2002/0165,440 Flex circuit shielded optical sensor 22 2002
6697658 Low power pulse oximeter 578 2002
* 2003/0055,325 Signal component processor 4 2002
6999904 Variable indication estimator 366 2002
6813511 Low-noise optical probes for reducing ambient noise 506 2002
6816741 Plethysmograph pulse recognition processor 530 2002
7245953 Reusable pulse oximeter probe and disposable bandage apparatii 331 2002
6934570 Physiological sensor combination 490 2002
* 2003/0225,323 Physiological sensor combination 39 2002
7225006 Attachment and optical probe 398 2003
7015451 Power supply rail controller 348 2003
6950687 Isolation and communication element for a resposable pulse oximetry sensor 481 2003
6822564 Parallel measurement alarm processor 566 2003
* 2003/0218,386 Power supply rail controller 2 2003
6861639 Systems and methods for indicating an amount of use of a sensor 509 2003
7509494 Interface cable 254 2003
6850788 Physiological measurement communications adapter 500 2003
* 2003/0181,798 Physiological measurement communications adapter 14 2003
* 2003/0167,391 Encryption interface cable 7 2003
7428432 Systems and methods for acquiring calibration data usable in a pulse oximeter 283 2003
7096054 Low noise optical housing 421 2003
* 2004/0039,272 Low noise optical housing 29 2003
7274955 Parameter compensated pulse oximeter 304 2003
* 2004/0122,301 Parameter compensated pulse oximeter 0 2003
7096052 Optical probe including predetermined emission wavelength based on patient type 416 2003
* 2004/0122,302 Optical probe including predetermined emission wavelength based on patient type 20 2003
7142901 Parameter compensated physiological monitor 417 2003
* 2004/0242,980 Parameter compensated physiological monitor 18 2003
7471969 Pulse oximeter probe-off detector 265 2003
6996427 Pulse oximetry data confidence indicator 588 2003
* 2004/0133,087 Pulse oximetry data confidence indicator 34 2003
7039449 Resposable pulse oximetry sensor 459 2003
* 2004/0133,088 Resposable pulse oximetry sensor 27 2003
7496391 Manual and automatic probe calibration 250 2004
7295866 Low power pulse oximeter 391 2004
* 2004/0181,133 Low power pulse oximeter 6 2004
7471971 Signal processing apparatus and method 254 2004
7530955 Signal processing apparatus 272 2004
7499741 Signal processing apparatus and method 261 2004
7215984 Signal processing apparatus 551 2004
* 2004/0210,146 Signal processing apparatus 113 2004
* 2004/0204,636 Signal processing apparatus 13 2004
* 2004/0204,637 Signal processing apparatus and method 132 2004
7500950 Multipurpose sensor port 258 2004
* 2005/0075,548 Multipurpose sensor port 10 2004
7530949 Dual-mode pulse oximeter 302 2004
7254431 Physiological parameter tracking system 298 2004
7024233 Pulse oximetry data confidence indicator 465 2004
7483730 Low-noise optical probes for reducing ambient noise 266 2004
* 2005/0043,600 Low-noise optical probes for reducing ambient noise 124 2004
7254434 Variable pressure reusable sensor 398 2004
* 2005/0085,704 Variable pressure reusable sensor 22 2004
7044918 Plethysmograph pulse recognition processor 387 2004
7030749 Parallel measurement alarm processor 407 2004
* 2005/0083,193 Parallel measurement alarm processor 3 2004
7483729 Pulse oximeter access apparatus and method 254 2004
* 2005/0101,848 Pulse oximeter access apparatus and method 8 2004
7373193 Pulse oximetry data capture system 339 2004
* 2005/0101,849 Pulse oximetry data capture system 1 2004
7280858 Pulse oximetry sensor 412 2005
* 2005/0197,550 Pulse oximetry sensor 13 2005
7844314 Physiological measurement communications adapter 203 2005
7373194 Signal component processor 309 2005
* 2005/0131,285 Signal component processor 0 2005
7371981 Connector switch 296 2005
D566282 Stand for a portable patient monitor 283 2005
D554263 Portable patient monitor 299 2005
6979812 Systems and methods for indicating an amount of use of a sensor 437 2005
8948834 Signal processing apparatus 45 2005
7438683 Application identification sensor 286 2005
7415297 Physiological parameter system 305 2005
* 2005/0203,352 Physiological parameter system 3 2005
7292883 Physiological assessment system 298 2005
* 2006/0009,687 Physiological assessment system 0 2005
8641631 Non-invasive monitoring of respiratory rate, heart rate and apnea 89 2005
7761128 Physiological monitor 227 2005
* 2005/0197,551 Stereo pulse oximeter 17 2005
7215986 Signal processing apparatus 375 2005
7937128 Cyanotic infant sensor 183 2005
9364181 Physiological sensor combination 18 2005
* 2005/0277,819 Physiological sensor combination 125 2005
7976472 Noninvasive hypovolemia monitor 204 2005
7041060 Rapid non-invasive blood pressure measuring device 373 2005
7272425 Pulse oximetry sensor including stored sensor data 355 2005
7340287 Flex circuit shielded optical sensor 307 2005
* 2006/0084,852 Flex circuit shielded optical sensor 20 2005
7186966 Amount of use tracking device and method for medical product 392 2005
7499835 Variable indication estimator 283 2006
* 2006/0161,389 Variable indication estimator 11 2006
7937129 Variable aperture sensor 185 2006
* 2006/0258,922 Variable aperture sensor 23 2006
8046040 Pulse oximetry data confidence indicator 187 2006
RE41317 Universal modular pulse oximeter probe for use with reusable and disposable patient attachment devices 239 2006
7190261 Arrhythmia alarm processor 340 2006
* 2006/0192,667 Arrhythmia alarm processor 15 2006
7618375 Rapid non-invasive blood pressure measuring device 241 2006
8000761 Resposable pulse oximetry sensor 178 2006
* 2006/0200,018 Resposable pulse oximetry sensor 30 2006
8364223 Physiological monitor 133 2006
7988637 Plethysmograph pulse recognition processor 193 2006
7899507 Physiological monitor 221 2006
7891355 Physiological monitor 196 2006
7844315 Physiological measurement communications adapter 201 2006
7489958 Signal processing apparatus and method 263 2006
7377899 Sine saturation transform 283 2006
* 2006/0281,983 Physiological monitor 28 2006
* 2006/0270,920 Physiological monitor 15 2006
* 2006/0206,021 Plethysmograph pulse recognition processor 43 2006
* 2006/0200,016 Signal processing apparatus and method 55 2006
7894868 Physiological monitor 211 2006
* 2006/0258,925 Physiological monitor 18 2006
7991446 Systems and methods for acquiring calibration data usable in a pulse oximeter 181 2006
RE41912 Reusable pulse oximeter probe and disposable bandage apparatus 201 2006
7454240 Signal processing apparatus 257 2006
7332784 Method of providing an optoelectronic element with a non-protruding lens 286 2006
7962188 Robust alarm system 189 2006
7880626 System and method for monitoring the life of a physiological sensor 197 2006
7530942 Remote sensing infant warmer 251 2006
7526328 Manual and automatic probe calibration 249 2006
7990382 Virtual display 179 2007
8182443 Drug administration controller 160 2007
7910875 Systems and methods for indicating an amount of use of a sensor 194 2007
* 2007/0156,034 Systems and methods for indicating an amount of use of a sensor 24 2007
7355512 Parallel alarm processor 358 2007
8942777 Signal processing apparatus 45 2007
8028701 Respiratory monitoring 183 2007
8046041 Signal processing apparatus 174 2007
8046042 Signal processing apparatus 173 2007
8036728 Signal processing apparatus 176 2007
8175672 Reusable pulse oximeter probe and disposable bandage apparatii 163 2007
8385995 Physiological parameter tracking system 128 2007
9375185 Systems and methods for acquiring calibration data usable in a pulse oximeter 18 2007
8532727 Dual-mode pulse oximeter 120 2007
8180420 Signal processing apparatus and method 162 2007
8019400 Signal processing apparatus 196 2007
7734320 Sensor isolation 230 2007
7509154 Signal processing apparatus 288 2007
7467002 Sine saturation transform 259 2007
* 2008/0036,752 SIGNAL PROCESSING APPARATUS AND METHOD 52 2007
8457707 Congenital heart disease monitor 124 2007
8315683 Duo connector patient cable 143 2007
* 2008/0071,153 DUO CONNECTOR PATIENT CABLE 12 2007
8840549 Modular patient monitor 60 2007
9192329 Variable mode pulse indicator 21 2007
D609193 Connector assembly 243 2007
D587657 Connector assembly 250 2007
* 2008/0091,093 PERFUSION INDEX SMOOTHER 8 2007
8457703 Low power pulse oximeter 128 2007
8414499 Plethysmograph variability processor 127 2007
8852094 Physiological parameter system 58 2007
8652060 Perfusion trend indicator 88 2008
7880606 Physiological trend monitor 213 2008
8405608 System and method for altering a display mode 133 2008
D614305 Connector assembly 242 2008
7919713 Low noise oximetry cable including conductive cords 183 2008
8764671 Disposable active pulse sensor 74 2008
8721542 Physiological parameter system 76 2008
8048040 Fluid titration system 172 2008
8355766 Ceramic emitter substrate 127 2008
8118620 Connector assembly with reduced unshielded area 162 2008
8274360 Systems and methods for storing, analyzing, and retrieving medical data 151 2008
8337403 Patient monitor having context-based sensitivity adjustments 132 2008
8128572 Signal processing apparatus 161 2008
7904132 Sine saturation transform 199 2008
7937130 Signal processing apparatus 183 2008
8353842 Portable patient monitor 129 2008
8532728 Pulse oximeter probe-off detector 119 2008
9072474 Pulse oximeter access apparatus and method 40 2009
8670814 Low-noise optical probes for reducing ambient noise 88 2009
7873497 Variable indication estimator 196 2009
8190227 Signal processing apparatus and method 161 2009
* 2009/0209,835 SIGNAL PROCESSING APPARATUS AND METHOD 1 2009
8126528 Signal processing apparatus 165 2009
8145287 Manual and automatic probe calibration 163 2009
9107625 Pulse oximetry system with electrical decoupling circuitry 36 2009
8203438 Alarm suspend system 176 2009
8911377 Patient monitor including multi-parameter graphical display 44 2009
RE43169 Universal modular pulse oximeter probe for use with reusable and disposable patient attachment devices 173 2009
8401602 Secondary-emitter sensor position indicator 127 2009
8346330 Reflection-detector sensor position indicator 132 2009
7951086 Rapid non-invasive blood pressure measuring device 179 2009
9161696 Modular patient monitor 36 2009
8771204 Acoustic sensor assembly 78 2009
8740816 Acoustic sensor assembly 0 2009
8588880 Ear sensor 91 2010
9218454 Medical monitoring system 23 2010
8897847 Digit gauge for noninvasive optical sensor 60 2010
8571619 Hemoglobin display and patient treatment 88 2010
8418524 Non-invasive sensor calibration device 125 2010
8670811 Pulse oximetry system for adjusting medical ventilation 88 2010
9106038 Pulse oximetry system with low noise cable hub 36 2010
8821415 Physiological acoustic monitoring system 69 2010
8755535 Acoustic respiratory monitoring sensor having multiple sensing elements 78 2010
8715206 Acoustic patient sensor 84 2010
8702627 Acoustic respiratory monitoring sensor having multiple sensing elements 80 2010
8690799 Acoustic respiratory monitoring sensor having multiple sensing elements 82 2010
8310336 Systems and methods for storing, analyzing, retrieving and displaying streaming medical data 139 2010
8430817 System for determining confidence in respiratory rate measurements 129 2010
RE43860 Reusable pulse oximeter probe and disposable bandage apparatus 132 2010
8548548 Physiological measurement communications adapter 116 2010
8801613 Calibration for multi-stage physiological monitors 67 2010
8260577 Variable indication estimator 144 2011
8922382 System and method for monitoring the life of a physiological sensor 46 2011
8228181 Physiological trend monitor 154 2011
9724024 Adaptive alarm system 0 2011
8584345 Reprocessing of a physiological sensor 88 2011
8498684 Sine saturation transform 121 2011
8399822 Systems and methods for indicating an amount of use of a sensor 126 2011
8921699 Low noise oximetry cable including conductive cords 48 2011
8682407 Cyanotic infant sensor 80 2011
8996085 Robust alarm system 42 2011
9675286 Plethysmograph pulse recognition processor 0 2011
9386953 Method of sterilizing a reusable portion of a noninvasive optical probe 16 2011
8667967 Respiratory monitoring 88 2011
9775545 Magnetic electrical connector for patient monitors 0 2011
8821397 Depth of consciousness monitor including oximeter 69 2011
9636055 Pulse and confidence indicator displayed proximate plethysmograph 0 2011
9579039 Non-invasive intravascular volume index monitor 2 2012
8229533 Low-noise optical probes for reducing ambient noise 154 2012
8364226 Signal processing apparatus 134 2012
8359080 Signal processing apparatus 127 2012
8529301 Shielded connector assembly 119 2012
8755856 Signal processing apparatus 76 2012
8781543 Manual and automatic probe calibration 62 2012
8718737 Method and apparatus for demodulating signals in a pulse oximetry system 77 2012
9095316 System for generating alarms based on alarm patterns 38 2012
8463349 Signal processing apparatus 123 2012
8706179 Reusable pulse oximeter probe and disposable bandage apparatii 76 2012
8888708 Signal processing apparatus and method 61 2012
8845543 Signal processing apparatus and method 0 2012
9333316 Drug administration controller 20 2012
8547209 Alarm suspend system 116 2012
8570167 Physiological trend monitor 88 2012
9323894 Health care sanitation monitoring system 20 2012
8489364 Variable indication estimator 122 2012
8983564 Perfusion index smoother 41 2012
9436645 Medical monitoring hub 8 2012
8870792 Physiological acoustic monitoring system 64 2012
9142117 Systems and methods for storing, analyzing, retrieving and displaying streaming medical data 34 2012
9289167 Signal processing apparatus and method 29 2012
9161713 Multi-mode patient monitor configured to self-configure for a selected or determined mode of operation 34 2012
8761850 Reflection-detector sensor position indicator 76 2012
9392945 Automated CCHD screening and detection 15 2013
8721541 Physiological monitor 76 2013
9788768 Physiological parameter tracking system 0 2013
8700112 Secondary-emitter sensor position indicator 76 2013
9195385 Physiological monitor touchscreen interface 23 2013
8720249 Non-invasive sensor calibration device 76 2013
9131881 Hypersaturation index 34 2013
9687160 Congenital heart disease monitor 0 2013
9138192 Variable indication estimator 34 2013
9697928 Automated assembly sensor cable 0 2013
8892180 Sine saturation transform 60 2013
9037207 Hemoglobin display and patient treatment 39 2013
 
Lynn, Lawrence A. (7)
9468378 Airway instability detection system and method 0 2005
8932227 System and method for CO2 and oximetry integration 1 2006
9053222 Patient safety processor 1 2009
8728001 Nasal capnographic pressure monitoring system 2 2010
8862196 System and method for automatic detection of a plurality of SP02 time series pattern types 0 2011
8666467 System and method for SPO2 instability detection and quantification 4 2012
9031793 Centralized hospital monitoring system for automatically detecting upper airway instability and for preventing and aborting adverse drug reactions 0 2012
 
Lumidign, Inc. (1)
7899217 Multibiometric multispectral imager 33 2007
 
Masino Corporation, Inc. (1)
8280473 Perfusion index smoother 0 2007
 
SEMLER SCIENTIFIC, INC. (1)
7628760 Circulation monitoring system and method 0 2007
 
POLAR ELECTRO OY (1)
* 2007/0270,702 Portable electronic device 1 2007
 
Carcacor Laboratories, Inc. (1)
8581732 Noninvasive multi-parameter patient monitor 53 2012
 
NELLCOR PURITAN BENNETT INCORPORATED (11)
* 6374129 Motion compatible sensor for non-invasive optical blood analysis 186 1999
6845256 Motion compatible sensor for non-invasive optical blood analysis 204 2002
7260425 Motion compatible sensor for non-invasive optical blood analysis 38 2004
* 2005/0070,775 Motion compatible sensor for non-invasive optical blood analysis 30 2004
7590439 Bi-stable medical sensor and technique for using the same 6 2005
7555327 Folding medical sensor and technique for using the same 17 2005
7486979 Optically aligned pulse oximetry sensor and technique for using the same 5 2005
7483731 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 13 2005
7522948 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 4 2006
7477924 Medical sensor and technique for using the same 5 2006
7574245 Flexible medical sensor enclosure 6 2006
 
MASIMO CORPORATION (149)
* 2003/0212,312 Low noise patient cable 8 2002
6920345 Optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 476 2003
* 2004/0147,822 Optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 45 2003
6961598 Pulse and active pulse spectraphotometry 452 2003
* 2003/0220,576 Pulse and active pulse spectraphotometry 43 2003
7149561 Optical spectroscopy pathlength measurement system 314 2003
6970792 Systems and methods for determining blood oxygen saturation values using complex number encoding 386 2003
* 2005/0055,276 Sensor incentive method 0 2004
* 2006/0189,871 Portable patient monitor 13 2005
* 2005/0234,317 Low power and personal pulse oximetry systems 85 2005
7343186 Multi-wavelength physiological monitor 299 2005
7225007 Optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 357 2005
* 2005/0245,797 Optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 2 2005
7239905 Active pulse blood constituent monitoring 322 2005
* 2006/0073,719 Multiple key position plug 2 2005
8606342 Pulse and active pulse spectraphotometry 88 2005
* 2006/0052,680 Pulse and active pulse spectraphotometry 98 2005
7440787 Systems and methods for determining blood oxygen saturation values using complex number encoding 275 2005
* 2006/0080,047 Systems and methods for determining blood oxygen saturation values using complex number encoding 0 2005
7377794 Multiple wavelength sensor interconnect 329 2006
8219172 System and method for creating a stable optical interface 51 2006
7822452 Method for data reduction and calibration of an OCT-based blood glucose monitor 200 2006
8036727 Methods for noninvasively measuring analyte levels in a subject 55 2006
* 2007/0073,116 Patient identification using physiological sensor 11 2006
8233955 Optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 126 2006
* 2007/0123,763 Optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 14 2006
7801581 Optical spectroscopy pathlength measurement system 203 2006
* 2007/0083,093 Optical spectroscopy pathlength measurement system 26 2006
7941199 Sepsis monitor 181 2007
8244325 Noninvasive oximetry optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 116 2007
* 2007/0244,378 NONINVASIVE OXIMETRY OPTICAL SENSOR INCLUDING DISPOSABLE AND REUSABLE ELEMENTS 18 2007
8204566 Method and apparatus for monitoring blood constituent levels in biological tissue 53 2007
* 2008/0103,375 Patient monitor user interface 31 2007
8265723 Oximeter probe off indicator defining probe off space 117 2007
* 2008/0094,228 PATIENT MONITOR USING RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION TAGS 3 2007
7791155 Detector shield 205 2007
8423106 Multi-wavelength physiological monitor 125 2008
8374665 Tissue profile wellness monitor 129 2008
D621516 Patient monitoring sensor 212 2008
8768423 Multispot monitoring for use in optical coherence tomography 73 2009
8571617 Flowometry in optical coherence tomography for analyte level estimation 77 2009
8577431 Noise shielding for a noninvasive device 89 2009
8437825 Contoured protrusion for improving spectroscopic measurement of blood constituents 125 2009
RE42753 Active pulse blood constituent monitoring 178 2009
8630691 Multi-stream sensor front ends for noninvasive measurement of blood constituents 89 2009
8203704 Multi-stream sensor for noninvasive measurement of blood constituents 130 2009
8989831 Disposable components for reusable physiological sensor 41 2010
9277880 Multi-stream data collection system for noninvasive measurement of blood constituents 21 2010
8471713 Interference detector for patient monitor 122 2010
8473020 Non-invasive physiological sensor cover 122 2010
9510779 Analyte monitoring using one or more accelerometers 5 2010
8306596 Method for data reduction and calibration of an OCT-based physiological monitor 67 2010
9724016 Respiration processor 0 2010
9066680 System for determining confidence in respiratory rate measurements 40 2010
9153112 Modular patient monitor 37 2011
RE44875 Active pulse blood constituent monitoring 74 2011
9341565 Multiple-wavelength physiological monitor 20 2011
9307928 Plethysmographic respiration processor 24 2011
8712494 Reflective non-invasive sensor 76 2011
9138180 Sensor adapter cable 36 2011
8663107 Sepsis monitor 88 2011
8666468 Patient monitor for determining microcirculation state 88 2011
9326712 Opticoustic sensor 25 2011
8740792 Patient monitor capable of accounting for environmental conditions 76 2011
9408542 Non-invasive blood pressure measurement system 5 2011
9649054 Blood pressure measurement method 0 2011
8548549 Methods for noninvasively measuring analyte levels in a subject 67 2011
8723677 Patient safety system with automatically adjusting bed 78 2011
RE44823 Universal modular pulse oximeter probe for use with reusable and disposable patient attachment devices 85 2012
9066666 Patient monitor for monitoring microcirculation 39 2012
9211095 Physiological measurement logic engine 21 2012
8830449 Blood analysis system 64 2012
8788003 Monitoring blood constituent levels in biological tissue 63 2012
9622692 Personal health device 0 2012
8570503 Heat sink for noninvasive medical sensor 89 2012
9532722 Patient monitoring system 5 2012
9245668 Low noise cable providing communication between electronic sensor components and patient monitor 22 2012
8831700 Apparatus and method for creating a stable optical interface 64 2012
9192351 Acoustic respiratory monitoring sensor with probe-off detection 25 2012
8755872 Patient monitoring system for indicating an abnormal condition 76 2012
8548550 Optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 116 2012
9782077 Modulated physiological sensor 0 2012
8781549 Noninvasive oximetry optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 64 2012
9370326 Oximeter probe off indicator defining probe off space 17 2012
9778079 Physiological monitor gauge panel 0 2012
9078560 Method for data reduction and calibration of an OCT-based physiological monitor 35 2012
9480435 Configurable patient monitoring system 6 2013
8965471 Tissue profile wellness monitor 48 2013
9339220 Multi-wavelength physiological monitor 20 2013
9591975 Contoured protrusion for improving spectroscopic measurement of blood constituents 2 2013
8948835 Systems and methods for determining blood oxygen saturation values using complex number encoding 44 2013
8754776 Interference detector for patient monitor 76 2013
8886271 Non-invasive physiological sensor cover 61 2013
8888539 Shielded connector assembly 61 2013
9259185 Ear sensor 20 2013
9730640 Pulse oximeter probe-off detector 0 2013
8920317 Multipurpose sensor port 44 2013
9749232 Intelligent medical network edge router 0 2013
9554737 Noninvasively measuring analyte levels in a subject 4 2013
9113831 Physiological measurement communications adapter 37 2013
8847740 Alarm suspend system 59 2013
8868150 Optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 61 2013
9717458 Magnetic-flap optical sensor 0 2013
9060721 Flowometry in optical coherence tomography for analyte level estimation 35 2013
9131883 Physiological trend monitor 36 2013
9560996 Universal medical system 3 2013
9662052 Reprocessing of a physiological sensor 0 2013
9750461 Acoustic respiratory monitoring sensor with probe-off detection 0 2013
9566019 Respiratory monitoring 3 2014
8909310 Multi-stream sensor front ends for noninvasive measurement of blood constituents 62 2014
9192312 Patient monitor for determining microcirculation state 20 2014
9474474 Patient monitor as a minimally invasive glucometer 5 2014
9750442 Physiological status monitor 0 2014
9113832 Wrist-mounted physiological measurement device 37 2014
9480422 Cyanotic infant sensor 5 2014
9186102 Emitter driver for noninvasive patient monitor 34 2014
9538980 Acoustic respiratory monitoring sensor having multiple sensing elements 6 2014
9028429 Acoustic sensor assembly 40 2014
9351673 Method and apparatus for demodulating signals in a pulse oximetry system 18 2014
9492110 Physiological monitor 6 2014
9226696 Patient safety system with automatically adjusting bed 21 2014
9211072 Disposable active pulse sensor 21 2014
9119595 Reflection-detector sensor position indicator 37 2014
9724025 Active-pulse blood analysis system 0 2014
9693719 Noninvasive oximetry optical sensor including disposable and reusable elements 0 2014
9153121 Alarm suspend system 35 2014
9538949 Depth of consciousness monitor including oximeter 6 2014
9386961 Physiological acoustic monitoring system 18 2014
9517024 Optical-based physiological monitoring system 6 2014
9295421 Non-invasive physiological sensor cover 21 2014
9397448 Shielded connector assembly 16 2014
9370335 Physiological acoustic monitoring system 20 2014
9107626 System and method for monitoring the life of a physiological sensor 37 2014
9622693 Systems and methods for determining blood oxygen saturation values using complex number encoding 1 2015
D755392 Pulse oximetry sensor 21 2015
9131917 Acoustic sensor assembly 36 2015
9636056 Physiological trend monitor 0 2015
9579050 Physiological trend monitor 0 2015
9370325 Hemoglobin display and patient treatment 19 2015
9668679 Method for data reduction and calibration of an OCT-based physiological monitor 0 2015
9743887 Pulse oximeter access apparatus and method 0 2015
9560998 System and method for monitoring the life of a physiological sensor 3 2015
D788312 Wireless patient monitoring device 1 2015
9775546 Hypersaturation index 0 2015
9782110 Opticoustic sensor 0 2015
9668680 Emitter driver for noninvasive patient monitor 0 2015
9693737 Physiological measurement logic engine 0 2015
9788735 Body worn mobile medical patient monitor 0 2017
9775570 Adaptive alarm system 0 2017
* Cited By Examiner