The present invention is a universal secure token scheme that provides two way authentication, credit, debit, and stored value operations. The invention permits the use of universally available networks to access corporate, private, and proprietary devices. The invention provides strong authentication, offers optional encryption of the established session, and operates without requiring special permission to reconfigure firewalls. One application of the invention provides a universal token scheme that can be used in debit and stored value transactions. In one embodiment, devices and services are treated as URLs and a smart card is configured to perform the necessary HTTP protocol to access the URL.
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