US Patent No: 5,871,445

Number of patents in Portfolio can not be more than 2000

System for indicating the position of a surgical probe within a head on an image of the head

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Abstract

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A system for determining a position of a probe relative to an object such as a head of a body of a patient. The head includes a surface such as a forehead having a contour. Cross sectional images of the head are scanned and stored as a function of the forehead contour. If the forehead contour does not appear in the scan images, then the position of the forehead contour relative to the scan images is determined with an optical scanner and a ring. During surgery, the optical scanner also determines the position of the forehead relative to the ring. An array for receiving radiation emitted from the probe and from the ring generates signals indicating the position of the tip of the probe relative to the ring. A stereotactic imaging system generates and displays an image of the head corresponding to the measured position of the tip of the probe. The system may also display scan images from different scanning technologies which scan images correspond to the same position in the head.

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First Claim

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Patent Owner(s)

Patent OwnerAddressTotal Patents
SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITYST LOUIS, MO114

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Inventor(s)

Inventor Name Address # of filed Patents Total Citations
Bucholz, Richard D St. Louis, MO 37 3522

Cited Art Landscape

Patent Info (Count) # Cites Year
 
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* Cited By Examiner

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Patent Info (Count) # Cites Year
 
Other [Check patent profile for assignment information] (20)
* 2005/0113,809 Multiple cannula image guided tool for image guided procedures 16 2004
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SURGICAL NAVIGATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (36)
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GE MEDICAL SYSTEMS GLOBAL TECHNOLOGY COMPANY, LLC (8)
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7,465,306 System and method for positioning a connecting member adjacent the spinal column in minimally invasive procedures 84 2004
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7,717,944 Instruments and methods for stabilization of bony structures 21 2004
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8,357,181 Intervertebral prosthetic device for spinal stabilization and method of implanting same 12 2005
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CANON KABUSHIKI KAISHA (2)
* 9,125,591 Acoustic-wave measuring apparatus and method 0 2011
* 2011/0263,963 ACOUSTIC-WAVE MEASURING APPARATUS AND METHOD 0 2011
 
SIEMENS AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT (2)
6,317,621 Method and device for catheter navigation in three-dimensional vascular tree exposures 52 2000
* 2007/0299,880 Document Management Server, Document Management Method, Computer Readable Medium, Computer Data Signal, and System For Managing Document Use 7 2006
 
BAYER PHARMA AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT (1)
8,551,074 Connector system having a compressible sealing element and a flared fluid path element 1 2008
 
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON (3)
6,226,418 Rapid convolution based large deformation image matching via landmark and volume imagery 53 1998
6,611,630 Method and apparatus for automatic shape characterization 16 1999
6,408,107 Rapid convolution based large deformation image matching via landmark and volume imagery 15 2000
 
OLYMPUS OPTICAL CO., LTD. (3)
* 6,640,127 Surgical operation navigating system using a reference frame 31 2000
* 7,076,286 Surgical microscope 6 2002
* 2002/0151,784 Surgical microscope 2 2002
 
ZIMMER TECHNOLOGY, INC. (2)
7,780,673 Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty 3 2005
7,833,275 Method and apparatus for performing a minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty 24 2005
 
BRITISH TELECOMMUNICATIONS PUBLIC LIMITED COMPANY (4)
7,174,202 Medical navigation apparatus 30 2002
* 2003/0163,037 Surgical navigation 16 2002
8,200,314 Surgical navigation 3 2007
* 2007/0167,722 Surgical navigation 10 2007
 
SMITH & NEPHEW, INC. (28)
6,923,817 Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes 147 2002
6,827,723 Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty 174 2002
* 2002/0198,451 Surgical navigation systems and processes for high tibial osteotomy 57 2002
* 2002/0147,455 Total knee arthroplasty systems and processes 15 2002
7,547,307 Computer assisted knee arthroplasty instrumentation, systems, and processes 58 2002
7,237,556 Image-guided fracture reduction 29 2003
7,862,570 Surgical positioners 10 2003
* 2005/0075,632 Surgical positioners 40 2003
* 2005/0085,822 Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes 12 2003
* 2005/0159,759 Systems and methods for performing minimally invasive incisions 14 2004
* 2005/0228,404 Surgical navigation system component automated imaging navigation and related processes 14 2004
* 2005/0279,368 Computer assisted surgery input/output systems and processes 17 2004
7,764,985 Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes 7 2004
* 2005/0119,639 Surgical navigation system component fault interfaces and related processes 23 2004
* 2005/0113,846 Surgical navigation systems and processes for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty 83 2004
7,794,467 Adjustable surgical cutting systems 63 2004
* 2006/0161,051 Method of computer-assisted ligament balancing and component placement in total knee arthroplasty 24 2005
* 2005/0234,332 Method of computer-assisted ligament balancing and component placement in total knee arthroplasty 30 2005
* 2005/0197,569 Methods, systems, and apparatuses for providing patient-mounted surgical navigational sensors 31 2005
7,477,926 Methods and apparatuses for providing a reference array input device 30 2005
* 2007/0287,910 Quick Disconnect and Repositionable Reference Frame for Computer Assisted Surgery 2 2005
8,109,942 Computer-aided methods, systems, and apparatuses for shoulder arthroplasty 25 2005
* 2005/0245,808 Computer-aided methods, systems, and apparatuses for shoulder arthroplasty 11 2005
* 2006/0190,011 Systems and methods for providing a reference plane for mounting an acetabular cup during a computer-aided surgery 23 2005
8,177,788 In-line milling system 3 2006
* 2007/0118,055 Systems and methods for facilitating surgical procedures involving custom medical implants 112 2006
* 2011/0092,978 SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR FACILITATING SURGICAL PROCEDURES INVOLVING CUSTOM MEDICAL IMPLANTS 15 2010
8,491,597 Surgical positioners 0 2010
 
Medtronic Navigaton, Inc. (1)
8,644,907 Method and apparatus for surgical navigation 5 2010
 
Troy Holsing et al. (1)
* 2006/0262,961 System and method for image based sensor calibration 17 2006
 
EVEREADY BATTERY COMPANY, INC. (1)
* 2004/0168,322 Razor head having skin controlling means 0 2004
 
Neutar L.L.C. (1)
6,546,277 Instrument guidance system for spinal and other surgery 99 1999
 
MEDTRONIC VASCULAR, INC. (5)
* 2008/0140,180 Vascular Position Locating Apparatus and Method 6 2006
* 2008/0147,173 Prosthesis Deployment Apparatus and Methods 16 2006
8,473,030 Vessel position and configuration imaging apparatus and methods 0 2007
* 2008/0171,934 Vessel Position and Configuration Imaging Apparatus and Methods 29 2007
* 2008/0188,921 Prosthesis Deployment Apparatus and Methods 6 2007
 
OXFORD FINANCE LLC (5)
7,998,062 Endoscope structures and techniques for navigating to a target in branched structure 8 2007
8,611,984 Locatable catheter 4 2010
8,428,328 Region-growing algorithm 3 2011
* 2011/0206,253 Region-Growing Algorithm 0 2011
8,696,548 Endoscope structures and techniques for navigating to a target in branched structure 3 2011
 
Mark W. Hunter et al. (1)
* 2006/0278,247 Surgical communication and power system 3 2006
 
Medtronic/Surgical Navigation Technologies (2)
6,235,038 System for translation of electromagnetic and optical localization systems 151 1999
6,708,184 Method and apparatus for producing and accessing composite data using a device having a distributed communication controller interface 21 2001
 
Abbott Cardiovascular Systems Inc. (3)
* 2007/0055,142 Method and apparatus for image guided position tracking during percutaneous procedures 50 2003
8,303,505 Methods and apparatuses for image guided medical procedures 11 2005
* 2007/0167,801 Methods and apparatuses for image guided medical procedures 122 2005
 
STRYKER CORPORATION (2)
6,611,141 Hybrid 3-D probe tracked by multiple sensors 141 2001
7,725,162 Surgery system 6 2003
 
Medtronic Navigation, Inc. (74)
RE43952 Interactive system for local intervention inside a non-homogeneous structure 0 1990
6,226,548 Percutaneous registration apparatus and method for use in computer-assisted surgical navigation 225 1998
6,470,207 Navigational guidance via computer-assisted fluoroscopic imaging 312 1999
6,474,341 Surgical communication and power system 232 1999
RE40852 Method and system for navigating a catheter probe 19 2000
6,535,756 Trajectory storage apparatus and method for surgical navigation system 84 2000
RE43328 Image guided awl/tap/screwdriver 5 2002
6,947,786 Method and apparatus for perspective inversion 39 2002
* 2003/0163,038 Method and apparatus for perspective inversion 1 2002
7,657,300 Registration of human anatomy integrated for electromagnetic localization 27 2002
6,990,368 Method and apparatus for virtual digital subtraction angiography 33 2002
6,920,347 Trajectory storage apparatus and method for surgical navigation systems 114 2002
7,606,613 Navigational guidance via computer-assisted fluoroscopic imaging 14 2002
* 2003/0073,901 Navigational guidance via computer-assisted fluoroscopic imaging 42 2002
7,152,608 Surgical communication and power system 18 2002
* 2003/0078,003 Surgical communication and power system 12 2002
7,797,032 Method and system for navigating a catheter probe in the presence of field-influencing objects 14 2002
7,599,730 Navigation system for cardiac therapies 124 2002
* 2004/0097,806 Navigation system for cardiac therapies 179 2002
RE39133 Percutaneous registration apparatus and method for use in computer-assisted surgical navigation 44 2003
7,697,972 Navigation system for cardiac therapies 133 2003
* 2004/0097,805 Navigation system for cardiac therapies 297 2003
7,570,791 Method and apparatus for performing 2D to 3D registration 40 2003
* 2004/0215,071 Method and apparatus for performing 2D to 3D registration 79 2003
7,835,778 Method and apparatus for surgical navigation of a multiple piece construct for implantation 13 2003
7,881,770 Multiple cannula image guided tool for image guided procedures 4 2004
7,567,834 Method and apparatus for implantation between two vertebral bodies 22 2004
* 2005/0143,651 Method and apparatus for virtual endoscopy 40 2005
7,853,305 Trajectory storage apparatus and method for surgical navigation systems 8 2005
8,239,001 Method and apparatus for surgical navigation 28 2005
* 2006/0025,677 Method and apparatus for surgical navigation 77 2005
7,630,753 Method and apparatus for perspective inversion 17 2005
7,835,784 Method and apparatus for positioning a reference frame 10 2005
* 2007/0066,887 Method and apparatus for positioning a reference frame 13 2005
7,840,253 Method and apparatus for surgical navigation 24 2005
* 2006/0084,867 Method and apparatus for surgical navigation 108 2005
8,057,407 Surgical sensor 3 2005
9,168,102 Method and apparatus for providing a container to a sterile environment 0 2006
* 2007/0166,188 Method and apparatus for providing a container to a sterile environment 1 2006
8,112,292 Method and apparatus for optimizing a therapy 5 2006
RE42226 Percutaneous registration apparatus and method for use in computer-assisted surgical navigation 2 2006
RE42194 Percutaneous registration apparatus and method for use in computer-assisted surgical navigation 2 2006
8,074,662 Surgical communication and power system 0 2006
8,175,681 Combination of electromagnetic and electropotential localization 23 2008
* 2010/0152,571 COMBINATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC AND ELECTROPOTENTIAL LOCALIZATION 37 2008
7,974,677 Method and apparatus for preplanning a surgical procedure 53 2009
* 2009/0234,217 Method And Apparatus For Preplanning A Surgical Procedure 22 2009
* 2009/0262,111 Method and Apparatus for Perspective Inversion 0 2009
RE43750 Method for navigating a catheter probe 0 2009
7,953,471 Method and apparatus for implantation between two vertebral bodies 0 2009
8,060,185 Navigation system for cardiac therapies 17 2009
* 2010/0022,873 Navigation System for Cardiac Therapies 9 2009
7,996,064 System and method for placing and determining an appropriately sized surgical implant 3 2009
* 2010/0041,985 Navigational Guidance Via Computer-Assisted Fluoroscopic Imaging 16 2009
8,548,565 Registration of human anatomy integrated for electromagnetic localization 0 2010
* 2010/0137,707 Registration of Human Anatomy Integrated for Electromagnetic Localization 3 2010
8,046,052 Navigation system for cardiac therapies 20 2010
* 2010/0210,938 Navigation System for Cardiac Therapies 19 2010
8,271,069 Method and apparatus for surgical navigation 12 2010
* 2010/0274,124 Method and Apparatus for Surgical Navigation 10 2010
8,845,655 Instrument guide system 1 2010
8,290,572 Method and system for navigating a catheter probe in the presence of field-influencing objects 1 2010
8,320,653 System and method for image based sensor calibration 0 2010
8,706,185 Method and apparatus for surgical navigation of a multiple piece construct for implantation 1 2010
8,467,851 Method and apparatus for positioning a reference frame 3 2010
8,634,897 Trajectory storage apparatus and method for surgical navigation systems 1 2010
* 2011/0118,593 Multiple Cannula Image Guided Tool for Image Guided Procedures 1 2011
RE44305 Percutaneous registration apparatus and method for use in computer-assisted surgical navigation 1 2011
8,549,732 Method of forming an electromagnetic sensing coil in a medical instrument 1 2011
8,359,730 Method of forming an electromagnetic sensing coil in a medical instrument 2 2011
8,401,616 Navigation system for cardiac therapies 12 2011
8,467,853 Navigation system for cardiac therapies 9 2011
8,731,641 Combination of electromagnetic and electropotential localization 3 2012
RE45509 Percutaneous registration apparatus and method for use in computer-assisted surgical navigation 0 2013
 
SURGICAL NAVIGATION, INC. (2)
8,838,199 Method and apparatus for virtual digital subtraction angiography 1 2005
* 2005/0165,292 Method and apparatus for virtual digital subtraction angiography 14 2005
 
COVIDIEN LP (18)
6,996,430 Method and system for displaying cross-sectional images of a body 51 1999
9,089,261 System of accessories for use with bronchoscopes 0 2004
9,055,881 System and method for image-based alignment of an endoscope 0 2005
8,905,920 Bronchoscope adapter and method 0 2008
* 2009/0088,600 Bronchoscope Adapter and Method 7 2008
8,764,725 Directional anchoring mechanism, method and applications thereof 0 2008
* 2009/0240,198 Directional Anchoring Mechanism, Method And Applications Thereof 3 2008
8,473,032 Feature-based registration method 4 2009
8,932,207 Integrated multi-functional endoscopic tool 0 2009
* 2010/0016,757 Integrated Multi-Functional Endoscopic Tool 30 2009
8,663,088 System of accessories for use with bronchoscopes 2 2009
8,696,685 Endoscope structures and techniques for navigating to a target in branched structure 3 2010
8,467,589 Hybrid registration method 0 2011
8,452,068 Hybrid registration method 0 2011
8,842,898 Region-growing algorithm 1 2013
9,117,258 Feature-based registration method 0 2013
9,113,813 Locatable catheter 0 2013
9,042,625 Region-growing algorithm 0 2014
 
DENTAL IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION (4)
9,082,036 Method for accurate sub-pixel localization of markers on X-ray images 0 2009
* 9,082,177 Method for tracking X-ray markers in serial CT projection images 0 2009
* 2011/0123,080 METHOD FOR TRACKING X-RAY MARKERS IN SERIAL CT PROJECTION IMAGES 5 2009
9,082,182 Extracting patient motion vectors from marker positions in x-ray images 0 2010
 
MEDTRONIC, INC. (48)
7,366,561 Robotic trajectory guide 18 2001
* 2001/0053,879 Robotic trajectory guide 9 2001
7,204,840 Deep organ access device and method 42 2001
7,636,596 Organ access device and method 6 2002
* 2004/0122,446 Organ access device and method 8 2002
7,559,935 Target depth locators for trajectory guide for introducing an instrument 10 2003
7,720,522 Fiducial marker devices, tools, and methods 1 2003
* 2004/0167,393 Fiducial marker devices, tools, and methods 31 2003
7,787,934 Fiducial marker devices, tools, and methods 1 2003
* 2004/0030,236 Fiducial marker devices, tools, and methods 16 2003
7,643,867 Fiducial marker devices, tools, and methods 8 2003
* 2004/0167,391 Fiducial marker devices, tools, and methods 30 2003
7,744,606 Multi-lumen instrument guide 3 2004
7,497,863 Instrument guiding stage apparatus and method for using same 14 2004
* 2006/0122,627 Multi-lumen instrument guide 12 2004
7,704,260 Low profile instrument immobilizer 4 2004
7,803,163 Multiple instrument retaining assembly and methods therefor 5 2005
* 2006/0122,629 Multiple instrument retaining assembly and methods therefor 4 2005
7,658,879 Trajectory guide with angled or patterned guide lumens or height adjustment 7 2006
8,660,635 Method and apparatus for optimizing a computer assisted surgical procedure 2 2007
* 2008/0081,982 Method And Apparatus For Optimizing A Computer Assisted Surgical Procedure 74 2007
8,185,184 Fiducial marker devices, tools, and methods 0 2007
8,311,611 Method for performing multiple registrations in a navigated procedure 3 2007
8,108,025 Flexible array for use in navigated surgery 2 2007
* 2008/0269,599 Method for Performing Multiple Registrations in a Navigated Procedure 20 2007
* 2008/0269,600 Flexible Array For Use In Navigated Surgery 5 2007
8,734,466 Method and apparatus for controlled insertion and withdrawal of electrodes 0 2007
* 2008/0269,777 Method And Apparatus For Controlled Insertion and Withdrawal of Electrodes 9 2007
7,833,231 Device for immobilizing a primary instrument and method therefor 4 2007
7,815,651 Device for immobilizing a primary instrument and method therefor 5 2007
7,857,820 Sheath assembly for an access device and method therefor 3 2007
7,828,809 Device for immobilizing a primary instrument and method therefor 2 2007
8,083,753 Robotic trajectory guide 1 2007
* 2009/0012,509 Navigated Soft Tissue Penetrating Laser System 12 2008
8,301,226 Method and apparatus for performing a navigated procedure 4 2008
* 2008/0269,602 Method And Apparatus For Performing A Navigated Procedure 21 2008
8,165,658 Method and apparatus for positioning a guide relative to a base 4 2008
7,867,242 Instrument for guiding stage apparatus and method for using same 5 2009
8,116,850 Organ access device and method 2 2009
8,032,204 Fiducial marker devices, tools, and methods 1 2009
8,192,445 Trajectory guide with instrument immobilizer 8 2009
* 2010/0063,516 Trajectory Guide With Instrument Immobilizer 21 2009
8,073,530 Fiducial marker devices, tools, and methods 0 2010
8,494,613 Combination localization system 9 2010
8,911,452 Device for immobilizing a primary instrument and method therefor 0 2010
8,845,656 Device for immobilizing a primary instrument and method therefor 0 2010
* 2011/0022,059 Device for Immobilizing a Primary Instrument and Method Therefor 1 2010
8,467,852 Method and apparatus for performing a navigated procedure 1 2011
 
IMAGE GUIDED TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (1)
6,497,134 Calibration of an instrument 13 2000
 
IMAGE-GUIDED NEUROLOGICS, INC. (5)
6,902,569 Trajectory guide with instrument immobilizer 162 2001
* 2002/0156,372 Deep organ access device and method 12 2002
* 2004/0167,542 Target depth locators for trajectory guide for introducing an instrument 6 2003
* 2005/0192,594 Low profile instrument immobilizer 23 2004
* 2006/0192,319 TRAJECTORY GUIDE WITH ANGLED OR PATTERNED GUIDE LUMENS OR HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT 53 2006
 
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CORPORATION HAMAMATSU UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE (3)
* 8,251,893 Device for displaying assistance information for surgical operation, method for displaying assistance information for surgical operation, and program for displaying assistance information for surgical operation 1 2008
* 2010/0094,085 Device for Displaying Assistance Information for Surgical Operation, Method for Displaying Assistance Information for Surgical Operation, and Program for Displaying Assistance Information for Surgical Operation 1 2008
8,666,476 Surgery assistance system 0 2010
 
BIOSENSORS INTERNATIONAL GROUP, LTD. (1)
* 6,567,687 Method and system for guiding a diagnostic or therapeutic instrument towards a target region inside the patient's body 78 2001
 
ELEKTA LTD. (5)
* 8,000,442 Calibrating imaging devices 2 2005
* 2006/0036,170 Calibrating imaging devices 7 2005
* 2008/0064,953 Incorporating Internal Anatomy In Clinical Radiotherapy Setups 14 2007
* 2009/0022,383 METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR COMPENSATING FOR CHANGES IN ANATOMY OF RADIOTHERAPY PATIENTS 2 2008
9,248,316 Feature tracking using ultrasound 0 2011
 
Eleckta Ltd. (1)
8,249,317 Methods and systems for compensating for changes in anatomy of radiotherapy patients 2 2008
 
Metronic Navigation, Inc. (1)
RE41066 Method and system for navigating a catheter probe 9 1999
 
Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research Image -Guided Neurologics, Inc. (2)
* 2008/0082,108 ADJUSTABLE TRAJECTORY ACCESS DEVICE AND METHOD THEREFOR 3 2007
* 2007/0250,077 DEVICE FOR IMMOBILIZING A PRIMARY INSTRUMENT AND METHOD THEREFOR 21 2007
 
REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA (3)
6,752,812 Remote actuation of trajectory guide 80 2000
8,494,614 Combination localization system 11 2010
* 2011/0054,293 Combination Localization System 22 2010
 
MAYO FOUNDATION FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH (1)
7,235,084 Deep organ access device and method 111 2002
 
THOMSON LICENSING (2)
7,637,915 Trajectory guide with instrument immobilizer 9 2004
* 2004/0267,284 Trajectory guide with instrument immobilizer 43 2004
 
STRYKER EUROPEAN HOLDINGS I, LLC (9)
7,567,833 Enhanced illumination device and method 9 2004
* 2005/0195,587 Enhanced illumination device and method 3 2004
8,290,570 System for ad hoc tracking of an object 0 2004
* 2006/0058,644 System, device, and method for AD HOC tracking of an object 11 2004
8,007,448 System and method for performing arthroplasty of a joint and tracking a plumb line plane 28 2004
* 2007/0179,626 Functional joint arthroplasty method 22 2005
8,382,765 Method of and system for planning a surgery 0 2008
8,617,173 System for assessing a fit of a femoral implant 0 2013
8,617,174 Method of virtually planning a size and position of a prosthetic implant 11 2013
 
SOFAMOR DANEK GROUP, INC. (1)
6,370,224 System and methods for the reduction and elimination of image artifacts in the calibration of x-ray imagers 16 2000
 
THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY (1)
* 7,225,012 Methods and systems for image-guided surgical interventions 79 2000
 
BOSTON SCIENTIFIC SCIMED, INC. (8)
6,689,142 Apparatus and methods for guiding a needle 26 1999
7,169,155 Methods and apparatus for guiding a needle 5 2001
* 2003/0114,862 Methods and apparatus for guiding a needle 3 2001
7,204,826 Apparatus and methods for guiding a needle 9 2003
8,057,487 Methods and apparatus for guiding a needle 0 2007
* 2007/0135,708 Methods and apparatus for guiding a needle 1 2007
7,766,878 Entry needle and related method of use 30 2007
* 2007/0203,455 Apparatus and methods for guiding a needle 2 2007
 
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA (5)
7,896,889 Trajectory guide with angled or patterned lumens or height adjustment 48 2003
* 2004/0167,543 Trajectory guide with angled or patterned lumens or height adjustment 78 2003
7,699,854 Trajectory guide with angled or patterned guide lumens or height adjustment 4 2006
7,981,120 Trajectory guide with angled or patterned guide lumens or height adjustment 4 2007
* 2007/0191,867 TRAJECTORY GUIDE WITH ANGLED OR PATTERNED GUIDE LUMENS OR HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT 4 2007
 
SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY (1)
* 7,072,704 System for indicating the position of a surgical probe within a head on an image of the head 70 2002
 
VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY (4)
6,584,339 Method and apparatus for collecting and processing physical space data for use while performing image-guided surgery 42 2001
7,072,707 Method and apparatus for collecting and processing physical space data for use while performing image-guided surgery 27 2003
* 2004/0019,274 Method and apparatus for collecting and processing physical space data for use while performing image-guided surgery 28 2003
* 7,899,512 System and method for surgical instrument disablement via image-guided position feedback 29 2005
* Cited By Examiner